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by Shannon DW

Tinea Capitis

(Ringworm of the Scalp; Fungal Infection of the Scalp)

Definition

Tinea capitis is a skin infection that affects the scalp.
Ringworm of the Scalp
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Causes

Tinea captis is caused by a type of fungus called a dermatophyte. The fungi thrive in warm, humid environments.

Risk Factors

Tinea capitis usually affects children under the age of 10 years, and those of African descent. Other factors that may increase your child's chance for tinea capitis include:
  • Daycare centers
  • Exposure to pets with the infection
  • Poor hygiene
  • Sharing combs, brushes, or hats
  • Diabetes
  • Immune system disorders, such as HIV infection

Symptoms

Tinea capitis may cause:
  • Itching of the scalp (not always present)
  • Bald patches
  • Areas of swelling, redness, scales, sores, or irritated skin
If left untreated, tinea capitis may cause permanent hair loss and scarring.

Diagnosis

Your doctor will ask about your child’s symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Your child may need to be referred to a specialist. A dermatologist focuses on skin issues.
The diagnosis is often made with close inspection of the scalp. If the diagnosis is uncertain, the doctor may scrape your child’s scalp or clip a few hairs for testing.
Tests on the sample may include:
  • Microscopic examination
  • Fungal culture

Treatment

The main treatment for tinea capitis is prescription antifungal medications. The condition can be difficult to treat. In some cases, tinea capitis can return after treatment. For some children, the condition goes away during the time of puberty.
Using an antifungal shampoo may help to reduce the risk of spreading the condition to others.

Prevention

To help reduce your child’s chance of tinea capitis:
  • Shampoo your child’s hair regularly.
  • Do not allow your child to share headgear, brushes, or combs.
  • Wash towels, clothes, and any shared items used by an infected person to prevent spreading it to others in the household.
  • Take your pets to the veterinarian for treatment if they develop skin rashes.

RESOURCES

American Academy of Dermatology
http://www.aad.org
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
http://www.cdc.gov

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Canadian Dermatology Association
http://www.dermatology.ca
Dermatologists
http://www.dermatologists.ca

References

Givens TG, Murray MM, Baker RC. Comparison of 1% and 2.5% selenium sulfide in the treatment of tinea capitis. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1995;149(7):808-811.
Noble SL, Forbes RC. Diagnosis and management of common tinea infections. Am Fam Physician. 1998;58(1):163-174.
Tinea capitis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated April 6, 2011. Accessed September 7, 2011.

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