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Acute Myelogenous Leukemia—Adult
(AML—Adult; Acute Myeloid Leukemia—Adult; Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia—Adult; Acute Granulocytic Leukemia—Adult; Acute Nonlymphoblastic Leukemia—Adult)
- Myeloblasts—a type of white blood cell; white blood cells fight infection
- Red blood cells (RBCs)—carry oxygen
- Platelets—makes blood clot, stops bleeding in cuts or bruises
|White Blood Cells|
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- Certain genetic disorders.
- Previous chemotherapy or radiation therapy treatment.
- Previous treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) , Hodgkin’s disease , non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma , and certain other cancers.
- Exposure to atomic bomb radiation or a nuclear reactor accident.
- Exposure to the chemical benzene.
- History of a blood disorder, such as myelodysplastic syndrome —Precancerous changes in the white cells and precursor cells of the bone marrow.
- Shortness of breath
- Paleness (a sign of anemia )
- Easy bruising or bleeding
- Petechiae (flat, pinpoint spots under the skin caused by bleeding)
- Loss of appetite
- Weight loss
- Bone pain
- Joint pain
- Enlarged liver and spleen
- Swelling, pain, and bleeding of the gums
- Painless lumps in the neck, underarms, stomach, or groin
- Blood tests
- Your doctor may need to collect fluid samples through:
- Routine microscopic exam—examination of a sample of blood, bone marrow, lymph node tissue, or cerebrospinal fluid
- Bone, blood marrow, lymph node tissue, or cerebrospinal fluid tests—to distinguish between types of leukemia
- Cytogenetic analysis—a test to look for certain changes of the chromosomes (genetic material) of the lymphocytes
- Immunophenotyping—examination of the proteins on cell surfaces and the antibodies produced by the body; to distinguish lymphoblastic from myeloid leukemia and determine types of therapy
- Gallium scan and bone scan—injection of a radioactive chemical into the bloodstream to detect areas of cancer or infection
- Your doctor may need detailed pictures of structures inside your body. These can be made with:
- Remission induction therapy—to kill leukemia cells
- Maintenance therapy—to kill any remaining leukemia cells that could grow and cause a relapse
Chemotherapy With Stem Cell Transplant
Other Drug Therapy
- Arsenic trioxide
- All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)
Monoclonal Antibody Therapy
Treatment of Side Effects
- A reduction in red blood cells (anemia)
- Reduced numbers of platelets that assist in blood clotting (thrombocytopenia)
- Decreased numbers of the white blood cells that fight infection
American Cancer Society http://www.cancer.org
The Leukemia and Lymphoma Society http://www.leukemia-lymphoma.org
BC Cancer Agency http://www.bccancer.bc.ca
Canadian Cancer Society http://www.cancer.ca
Adult acute myeloid leukemia (PDQ): treatment. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/adultAML/Patient/. Updated July 30, 2012. Accessed October 30, 2012.
Childhood acute myeloid leukemia/other myeloid malignancies (PDQ): treatment. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/childAML/patient. Updated August 13, 2012. Accessed October 30, 2012.
Larson RA, Sievers EL, Stadtmauer EA, et al. Final report of the efficacy and safety of gemtuzumab ozogamicin (Mylotarg) in patients with CD33-positive acute myeloid leukemia in first recurrence. Cancer. 2005 Oct 1;104(7):1442-52.
Leukemia–acute myeloid. American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/CRI%5F2%5F3x.asp?rnav=cridg&dt=82. Accessed October 30, 2012.
6/25/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: US Food and Drug Administration. FDA: Pfizer voluntarily withdraws cancer treatment Mylotarg from US market. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm216448.htm. Published June 21, 2010. Accessed June 25, 2010.
5/12/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Davis AS, Viera AJ, et al. Leukemia: an overview for primary care. Am Fam Physician. 2014 May 1;89(9):731-8.
8/26/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Fircanis S, Merriam P, et al. The relation between cigarette smoking and risk of acute myeloid leukemia: An updated meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. Am J Hematol. 2014;89(8):E125-E132.
- Reviewer: Mohei Abouzied, MD
- Review Date: 12/2013
- Update Date: 00/82/2014