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- Central diabetes insipidus (central DI)
- Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI)
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- Damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary glands due to surgery, infection, stroke, tumor , or head injury
- Certain conditions (such as sarcoidosis , tuberculosis , granulomatosis with polyangiitis)
- Certain medicines (such as lithium)—the most common cause of diabetes insipidus
- Kidney disease (such as polycystic kidney disease )
- Protein malnutrition
- Certain conditions (such as hypercalcemia, hypokalemia)
- Increased urination, especially during the night
- Extreme thirst
- Dehydration (fast heart rate, dry skin and mouth)
- Electrolyte levels
- Kidney function tests
- ADH levels
- Blood sugar to look for diabetes mellitus
- Urine specific gravity and/or osmolality (measures how concentrated or dilute the urine is)
- Urine volume tests to see how much urine is being produced
Water deprivation test
- Only done under doctor supervision
- Urine output is measured for a 24-hour period
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head—if central CDI is suspected
- For central DI—taking a synthetic form of ADH
- For NDI—following a low-sodium diet, drinking plenty of water, taking a diuretic (water pill)
American Diabetes Association http://www.diabetes.org
Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Foundation http://www.ndif.org
Canadian Diabetes Association http://www.diabetes.ca
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/index%5Fe.html
Central diabetes insipidus. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us . Updated September 1, 2011. Accessed July 31, 2012.
Garofeanu CG, Weir M, et al. Causes of reversible nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: a systematic review. Am J Kidney Dis . 2005;45:626-637.
Majzoub JA, Srivatsa A. Diabetes insipidus: clinical and basic aspects. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev . 2006;Suppl 1:60-65.
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us . Updated September 1, 2011. Accessed July 31, 2012.
Patient information publications: diabetes insipidus. NH Clinical Center website. Available at: http://www.cc.nih.gov/ccc/patient%5Feducation/pepubs/di.pdf . Published 2006. Accessed July 31, 2012.
Rivkees SA, Dunbar N, et al. The management of central diabetes insipidus in infancy: desmopressin, low renal solue load formula, thazide diuretics. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab . 2007;20:459-469.
Sands JM, Bichet DG. Nephogenic diabetes insipidus. Annals Int Med . 2006;144:186-194.
Toumba M, Stanhope R. Morbidity and mortality associated with vasopressin analogue treatment. Pediatr Endocrinol Metab . 2006;19:197-201.
- Reviewer: Kim Carmichael, MD
- Review Date: 09/2013
- Update Date: 09/30/2013