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1 Food and Drug Administration, HHS. Food labeling: health claims; soluble dietary fiber from certain foods and coronary heart disease. Final rule. Fed Regist. 2003;68:44207-44209.
2 Behall KM, Scholfield DJ, Hallfrisch J. Effect of beta-glucan level in oat fiber extracts on blood lipids in men and women. J Am Coll Nutr. 1997;16:46-51.
3 Bell S, Goldman VM, Bistrian BR, et al. Effect of beta-glucan from oats and yeast on serum lipids. Crit Rev FoodSci Nutr. 1999;39:189-202.
4 Braaten JT, Wood PJ, Scott FW, et al. Oat beta-glucan reduces blood cholesterol concentration in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1994;48:465-474.
5 Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Vuksan V, et al. Soluble fiber intake at a dose approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for a claim of health benefits: serum lipid risk factors for cardiovascular disease assessed in a randomized controlled crossover trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;75:834-839.
6 Karmally W, Montez MG, Palmas W, et al. Cholesterol-lowering benefits of oat-containing cereal in Hispanic Americans. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005;105:967-970.
7 Keogh GF, Cooper GJ, Mulvey TB, et al. Randomized controlled crossover study of the effect of a highly beta-glucan-enriched barley on cardiovascular disease risk factors in mildly hypercholesterolemic men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78:711–718.
8 Lovegrove JA, Clohessy A, Milon H, et al. Modest doses of beta-glucan do not reduce concentrations of potentially atherogenic lipoproteins. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72:49-55.
9 Nicolosi R, Bell SJ, Bistrian BR, et al. Plasma lipid changes after supplementation with beta-glucan fiber from yeast. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70:208–12.
10 Onning G, Wallmark A, Persson M, et al. Consumption of oat milk for 5 weeks lowers serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in free-living men with moderate hypercholesterolemia. Ann Nutr Metab. 2000;43:301-309.
11 Uusitupa MI, Ruuskanen E, Makinen E, et al. A controlled study on the effect of beta-glucan-rich oat bran on serum lipids in hypercholesterolemic subjects: relation to apolipoprotein E phenotype. J Am Coll Nutr. 1992;11:651-659.
12 Keenan JM, Pins JJ, Frazel C, et al. Oat ingestion reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients with mild or borderline hypertension: a pilot trial. J Fam Pract. 2002;51:369.
13 Pins JJ, Geleva D, Keenan JM, et al. Do whole-grain oat cereals reduce the need for antihypertensive medications and improve blood pressure control? J Fam Pract. 2002;51:353-359.
14 Davy BM, Melby CL, Beske SD, et al. Oat consumption does not affect resting casual and ambulatory 24-h arterial blood pressure in men with high-normal blood pressure to stage I hypertension. J Nutr. 2002;132:394-398.
15 Braaten JT, Scott FW, Wood PJ, et al. High beta-glucan oat bran and oat gum reduce postprandial blood glucose and insulin in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med. 1994;11:312-318.
16 Bourdon I, Yokoyama W, Davis P, et al. Postprandial lipid, glucose, insulin, and cholecystokinin responses in men fed barley pasta enriched with beta-glucan. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69:55-63.
17 Jenkins AL, Jenkins DJ, Zdravkovic U, et al. Depression of the glycemic index by high levels of beta-glucan fiber in two functional foods tested in type 2 diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002;56:622-628.
18 Pick ME, Hawrysh ZJ, Gee MI. Oat bran concentrate bread products improve long-term control of diabetes: a pilot study. J Am Diet Assoc. 1996;96:1254-1261.
19 Wood PJ. Physicochemical properties and physiological effects of the (1----3)(1----4)-beta-D-glucan from oats. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1990;270:119-27.
20 Czop JK, Kay J. Isolation and characterization of beta-glucan receptors on human mononuclear phagocytes. J Exp Med. 1991;173:1511-1520.
21 Czop JK. The role of beta-glucan receptors on blood and tissue leukocytes in phagocytosis and metabolic activation. Pathol Immunopathol Res. 1986;5:286-296.
22 Di Renzo L, Yefenof E, Klein E. The function of human NK cells is enhanced by beta-glucan, a ligand of CR3 (CD11b/CD18). Eur J Immunol. 1991;21:1755-1758.
23 Estrada A, Yun CH, Van Kessel A, et al. Immunomodulatory activities of oat beta-glucan in vitro and in vivo. Microbiol Immunol. 1997;41:991-998.
24 Kirmaz C, Bayrak P, Yilmaz O, et al. Effects of glucan treatment on the Th1/Th2 balance in patients with allergic rhinitis: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2005;16:128-134.
25 Miyazaki K, Mizutani H, Katabuchi H, et al. Activated (HLA-DR+) T-lymphocyte subsets in cervical carcinoma and effects of radiotherapy and immunotherapy with sizofiran on cell-mediated immunity and survival. Gynecol Oncol. 1995;56:412-420.
26 Ooi VE, Liu F. Immunomodulation and anti-cancer activity of polysaccharide-protein complexes. Curr Med Chem. 2000;7:715-729.
27 Wakshull E, Brunke-Reese D, Lindermuth J, et al. PGG-glucan, a soluble beta-(1,3)-glucan, enhances the oxidative burst response, microbicidal activity, and activates an NF-kappa B-like factor in human PMN: evidence for a glycosphingolipid beta-(1,3)-glucan receptor. Immunopharmacology. 1999;41:89-107.
28 Yun CH, Estrada A, Van Kessel A, et al. Beta-glucan, extracted from oat, enhances disease resistance against bacterial and parasitic infections. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2003;35:67-75.
29 de Felippe Junior J, da Rocha e Silva Junior M, Maciel FM, et al. Infection prevention in patients with severe multiple trauma with the immunomodulator beta 1-3 polyglucose (glucan). Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1993;177:383-388.
30 Nakano H, Namatame K, Nemoto H, et al. A multi-institutional prospective study of lentinan in advanced gastric cancer patients with unresectable and recurrent diseases: effect on prolongation of survival and improvement of quality of life. Kanagawa Lentinan Research Group. Hepatogastroenterology. 1999;46:2662-2668.
31 Ooi VE, Liu F. Immunomodulation and anti-cancer activity of polysaccharide-protein complexes. Curr Med Chem. 2000;7:715-729.
32 Tong DW, Barnetson RS. Beta-1,3-D-glucan gel in the treatment of solar keratoses. Australas J Dermatol. 1996;37:137-138.
33 Lovegrove JA, Clohessy A, Milon H, et al. Modest doses of beta-glucan do not reduce concentrations of potentially atherogenic lipoproteins. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72:49-55.
34 Frank J, Sundberg B, Kamal-Eldin, A et al. Yeast-leavened oat breads with high or low molecular weight beta-glucan do not differ in their effects on blood concentrations of lipids, insulin, or glucose in humans. J Nutr. 2004;134:1384-1388.
35 Queenan KM, Stewart ML, Smith KN, et al. Concentrated oat beta-glucan, a fermentable fiber, lowers serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic adults in a randomized controlled trial. Nutr J. 2007 Mar 26. [Epub ahead of print]
36 Kelly S, Summerbell C, Brynes A, et al. Wholegrain cereals for coronary heart disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Apr 18;(2):CD005051.
37 Preus HR, Aass AM, Hansen BF, et al. A randomized, single-blind, parallel-group clinical study to evaluate the effect of soluble beta-1,3/1,6-glucan on experimental gingivitis in man. J Clin Periodontol. 2008;35:236-241.
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 08/2013
- Update Date: 08/22/2013