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(Giant Cell Arteritis)
- Giant cell arteritis (GCA)
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- Family history
- Polymyalgia rheumatica—a condition characterized by stiffness and pain in muscles of the neck, shoulders, lower back, hips, and thighs
- Scalp pain or tenderness over the temporal artery
- Fever or flu-like symptoms
- Pain when chewing
- Pain in the jaw or tongue
- Loss of appetite and weight loss
- Vision changes
- Aches in the joints or muscles
- Blood tests
- Biopsy—removal of a sample of the temporal artery
- Retinal exam
- Ultrasound of the temporal artery
Arthritis Foundation http://www.arthritis.org
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke http://www.ninds.nih.gov
Canadian Cardiovascular Society http://www.ccs.ca
Canadian Society of Otolaryngology http://www.entcanada.org
Giant cell arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica. American Academy of Family Physicians Family Doctor website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/giant-cell-arteritis-and-polymyalgia-rheumatica.html. Updated November 2010. Accessed August 7, 2013.
Karahaliou M, Vaiopoulos G, et al. Colour duplex sonography of temporal arteries before decision for biopsy: a prospective study in 55 patients with suspected giant cell arteritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2006;8:R116.
Larsson K, Mellström D, et al. Early menopause, low body mass index, and smoking are independent risk factors for developing giant cell arteritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2006;65:529-532.
Parikh M, Miller NR, et al. Prevalence of a normal c-reactive protein with an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate in biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis. Ophthalmology. 2006;113(10):1842-1845.
Polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. Available at: http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health%5FInfo/Polymyalgia/default.asp. Accessed August 7, 2013.
Smetana GW, Shmerling RH. Does this patient have temporal arteritis? JAMA. 2002; 287:92.
Temporal arteritis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us. Updated September 18, 2012. Accessed August 7, 2013.
Yellin AE, DeMeester TR. Department of Surgery, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California. JAMA Surgery. 2004;139(11):1146-1147.
- Reviewer: Michael J. Fucci, DO; Brian Randall, MD
- Review Date: 08/2013
- Update Date: 05/11/2013