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, most commonly:
- Fresh berries
- Reaction to allergy shots (desensitization shots)
- Insect bites or stings
- Cold or heat
- Thyroid disease— hypothyroidism orhyperthyroidism
- Vasculitis (inflammation of the blood vessels)
- Exposure to an allergen—something that causes an allergic reaction
- Exposure to an allergen that triggered hives in the past
- Excessive swelling of the eyelids, lips, or genitals
- Difficulty breathing or swallowing— Call for emergency services right away if you are having these symptoms.
- Leukotriene antagonists
- Oral steroid medications for hives resistant to other treatments
- Anti-inflammatory medications
- Immunosuppressant medications
- Ultraviolet light therapy
- Prescription epinephrine (adrenalin) injections for cases when swelling affects the airways
American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology http://www.aaaai.org
American Academy of Dermatology http://www.aad.org
Canadian Dermatology Association http://www.dermatology.ca
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Dibbern DA Jr. Urticaria: selected highlights and recent advances. Med Clin North Am. 2006;90:187-209. Review.
Gambichler T, Breuckmann F, Boms S, Altmeyer P, Kreuter A. Narrowband UVB phototherapy in skin conditions beyond psoriasis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005;52:660-670. Review.
Guldbakke KK, Khachemoune A. Etiology, classification, and treatment of urticaria. Cutis. 2007;79:41-49. Review.
Hives. American Academy of Dermatology website. Available at: http://www.aad.org/dermatology-a-to-z/diseases-and-treatments/e---h/hives. Accessed September 30, 2014.
Kaplan Allen P.Chronic urticaria: pathogenesis and treatment. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004; 114(3): 465-474.
Tips to remember: allergic skin conditions. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology website. Available at: http://www.aaaai.org/patients/publicedmat/tips/allergicskinconditions.stm. Accessed September 30, 2014.
Urticaria. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated September 11, 2014. Accessed September 30, 2014.
- Reviewer: Marcin Chwistek, MD
- Review Date: 08/2014
- Update Date: 09/30/2014