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(Diabetes, Gestational; GDM; Gestational Onset Diabetes Mellitus [GODM]; Glucose Intolerance During Pregnancy)
|Large Baby Due to Gestational Diabetes|
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- Obesity or being overweight—This can affect the body's ability to use insulin.
- Gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy
- Multiple pregnancy (carrying two or more babies)
- Family history of diabetes
- Previous delivery of a large baby
- Age: 25 or older
- Sleep-disordered breathing—abnormal breathing during sleep ranging from snoring to sleep apnea
- History of polycystic ovary syndrome
- Race: Hispanic, African-American, Native-American, Asian-American, Indigenous Australian, or a Pacific Islanders
- Previous stillbirth or too much fluid surrounding a baby during pregnancy
- Increased urination
- Vaginal or urinary tract infections
- Eat a balanced diet . Do not skip meals.
- Eat plenty of fruits, vegetables , and high fiber foods .
- Limit the amount of fat you eat.
- Avoid foods high in sugar (eg, soda, candy, cookies).
- Manage your portions sizes at each meal.
- Plan a bedtime snack each night. It should include protein and complex carbohydrates (eg, legumes, potatoes, corn, rice).
- Keep a record of your food intake. Share this with your doctor.
Blood Sugar Testing
- Metformin (eg, Glucophage)
- Glyburide (eg, DiaBeta, Glucovance)
- Do not gain more weight than recommended during pregnancy.
- Eat a healthy diet.
- Exercise regularly. Talk to your doctor before starting an exercise program.
- Talk to your doctor about whether you should take probiotics to reduce your risk of gestational diabetes.
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists http://www.acog.org/
American Diabetes Association http://www.diabetes.org/
Canadian Diabetes Association http://www.diabetes.ca/
Women's Health Matters http://www.womenshealthmatters.ca/
Gestational diabetes. ACOG practice bulletin No. 30. Obstet Gynecol. 2001;98:525-538.
Gestational diabetes. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated July 11, 2012. Accessed August 13, 2012.
Hillier TA, Pedula KL, Vesco KK, et al. Excess gestational weight gain: modifying fetal macrosomia risk associated with maternal glucose. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;112:1007-1014.
How to treat gestational diabetes. American Diabetes Association website. Available at: http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/gestational/how-to-treat-gestational.html. Accessed August 13, 2012.
2/5/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Cheng YW, Chung JH, Kurbisch-Block I, Inturrisi M, Shafer S, Caughey AB. Gestational weight gain and gestational diabetes mellitus: perinatal outcomes. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;112:1015-1022.
4/1/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Dhulkotia JS, Ola B, Fraser R, Farrell T. Oral hypoglycemic agents vs insulin in management of gestational diabetes: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010;203(5):457.e1-9.
3/17/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Luoto R, Laitinen K, et al. Impact of material probiotic-supplemented dietary counselling on pregnancy outcome and prenatal and postnatal growth: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Br J Nutr. 2010. Jun;103(12):1792-1799.
6/9/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Qin JZ, Pang LH, et al. Obstetric complications in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2013;11:56
- Reviewer: Andrea Chisholm, MD
- Review Date: 09/2013
- Update Date: 00/60/2014