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Stuttering Can Be Stopped
Defining and Diagnosing Stuttering
- Repetition of sounds, words, or phrases
- Silent pauses between words
- Speech that sounds like "blurting"
- Speech may be better or worse depending if speaker is in private or in public
- Rate of speech—evaluation of disruptions or breaks in the flow of speech
- Language skills
- Emotional reaction to stuttering, speech avoidance, or self-image
Risk Factor for Stuttering
- Genetics— immediate or extended family member who stutter
- Cognitive ability—how well the brain processes complex tasks
- Environment—stressful social situations, home life, or emotional processing may contribute to stuttering
- Fluency shaping to improve flow of speech.
- Stuttering modification to improve communication skills, like eye contact and phrasing.
- Reduce fears and avoidance by decreasing stressful moments.
National Stuttering Association http://www.nsastutter.org
Stuttering Foundation of America http://www.stuttersfa.org
Canadian Stuttering Association http://www.stutter.ca
Speech-Language and Audiology Canada http://sac-oac.ca
Bothe AK, Davidow JH, et al. Stuttering treatment research 1970-2005: Systematic review incorporating trial quality assessment of behavioral, cognitive, and related approaches. Am J Speech Lang Pathol. 2006;15(4):321-341.
Howell P. Signs of developmental stuttering up to age eight and at 12 plus. Clin Psychol Rev. 2007;27(3):287-306.
Jones M, Onslow M, et al. Randomized controlled trial of the Lidcombe Program of Early Stuttering Intervention. Br J of Med. 2005;331(7518):659.
Prasse JE, Kikano GE. Stuttering: an overview. Am Fam Physician. 2008;77:1271-6.
Resource packet—Assessement of speech: Fluency. Tennessee Department of Education website. Available at: http://www.tn.gov/education/student%5Fsupport/eligibility/71309SLIfluency.pdf. Updated July 2009. Accessed October 27, 2014.
Sommer M, Koch MA, et al. Disconnection of speech-relevant brain areas in persistent developmental stuttering. Lancet. 2002;360(9330):380-383.
Stager SV, Calis K, et al. Treatment with medications affecting dopaminergic and serotonergic mechanisms: Effects on fluency and anxiety in persons who stutter. J Fluency Disord. 2005;30(4):319-335.
Stuttering. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association website. Available at: http://www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/stuttering.htm. Accessed October 27, 2014.
The experience of people who stutter. National Stuttering Association website. Available at: http://www.westutter.org/what-is-stuttering/the-experience-of-people-who-stutter. Accessed October 27, 2014.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 10/2014
- Update Date: 10/27/2014