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International Travel Information: Tuberculosis
What Is the Risk to Travelers?
- You may be visiting countries where TB is prevalent.
- Your mode of transportation is a confined area (such as an airplane), where you may share air space with someone who has active TB.
- South Africa
- Democratic Republic of Congo
- Russian Federation
- United Republic of Tanzania
How Is TB Transmitted?
- Water droplets carrying the bacteria are more widely dispersed outdoors
- Ultraviolet radiation from the sun kills TB
- Severe cough lasting more than two weeks
- Coughing up blood or sputum (mucus from deep inside the lungs)
- Weakness or fatigue
- Loss of appetite
- Weight loss
- Night sweats
What Are the Testing Guidelines for Travelers?
What Is the Treatment?
Medicines for Active TB
What Kind of Protection Should You Choose?
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov/
StopTB Partnership http://www.stoptb.org/
The Canadian Lung Association http://www.lung.ca/
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Active tuberculosis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated June 19, 2012. Accessed August 20, 2012.
Advice for travelers. Treat Guidelines Med Lett. 2004;2:33.
Al-Jahdali H, Memish ZA, Menzies D. Tuberculosis in association with travel. Int J Antimicrob Agents . 2003;21:125-30.
Country profiles. World Health Organization website. Available at: http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global%5Freport/2011/gtbr11%5Fa2.pdf. Published 2011. Accessed August 20, 2012.
Exposure of passengers and flight crew to Mycobacterium tuberculosis on commercial aircraft, 1992-1995. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 1995;44:175.
Francis J. Curry National Tuberculosis Center. Tuberculosis infection control: a practical manual for preventing TB. Available at: http://www.ndhealth.gov/disease/tb/Documents/Infection%20Control.pdf. Published 2007. Accessed August 20, 2012.
Frank GJ, Cobelens, et al. Risk of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in travelers to areas of high tuberculosis endemicity. Lancet . 2000;356:461-465.
Hill, DR. The burden of illness in international travelers. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:115.
Human tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis. 2001-2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep . 2005;54:605-608.
Latent tuberculosis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated May 31, 2012. Accessed August 20, 2012.
LoBue P. Tuberculosis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2012/chapter-3-infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/tuberculosis.htm. Updated July 1, 2011. Accessed August 20, 2012.
Tuberculosis. World Health Organization website. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs104/en/ . Updated March 2012. Accessed August 20, 2012.
Tuberculosis country profiles. Stop TB Partnership website. Available at: http://www.stoptb.org/countries/tbdata.asp . Accessed August 20, 2012.
Tuberculosis testing and diagnosis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/testing/default.htm. Updated April 30, 2012. Accessed August 20, 2012.
12/16/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php: Sterling T, Villarino E, Borisov A, et al. Three months of rifapentine and isoniazid for latent tuberculosis infection. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(23):2155.
- Reviewer: Brian Randall, MD
- Review Date: 08/2012
- Update Date: 08/20/2012