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- A blood vessel pressing on the facial nerve
- Facial nerve injury
- Bony or other abnormalities that compress the nerve
|Muscles of the Face|
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- Intermittent twitching of the eyelid muscle
- Forced closure of the eye
- Spasms of the muscles of the lower face
- Mouth pulled to one side
- Continuous spasms involving all the muscles on one side of the face
Botulinum Toxin Injections
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke http://www.ninds.nih.gov
National Organization for Rare Disorders http://www.rarediseases.org
Canadian Movement Disorder Group http://www.cmdg.org
Hemifacial Spasm Association http://www.hfs-assn.org
Alexander GE, Moses H. Carbamazepine for hemifacial spasm. Neurology. 1982;32:286-287.
Defazio G, Martino D, Aniello MS, et al. Influence of age on the association between primary hemifacial spasm and arterial hypertension. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003;74:979-981.
Digre K, Corbett JJ. Hemifacial spasm: differential diagnosis, mechanism, and treatment. Adv Neurol. 1988;49:151-176.
Ehni G, Woltman HW. Hemifacial spasm. Arch Neurol Psychiatry. 1945;53:205-211.
Hemifacial spasm. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Accessed July 11, 2013.
Hemifacial spasm information page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/hemifacial%5Fspasm/hemifacial%5Fspasm.htm. Updated October 11, 2011. Accessed July 11, 2013.
DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: 2007 safety alerts for drugs, biologics, medical devices, and dietary supplements: Carbamazepine (marketed as Carbatrol, Equetro, Tegretol and generics). Medwatch. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/medwatch/safety/2007/safety07.htm#carbamazepine.
- Reviewer: Rimas Lukas, MD
- Review Date: 05/2014
- Update Date: 00/53/2014