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Risk Factors for Cirrhosis
Excessive Alcohol Consumption
- Infection with the hepatitis B virus —World Health Organization (WHO) statistics show that 2 billion individuals are initially infected with hepatitis B virus and 350 million remain infected chronically and become carriers of the virus. The rate of hepatitis B infection is highest among Asians and Pacific Islanders and second highest among non-Hispanic blacks.
- Acute infection with hepatitis C — becomes chronic in about 80% of infected adults. About 10%-15% of people with chronic hepatitis C will develop cirrhosis, usually over many years. The rate of hepatitis C infection is highest among non-Hispanic blacks.
- Hepatitis D — infects people who are already infected with hepatitis B.
- Hemochromatosis —an inherited disorder that causes the body to absorb and store too much iron, which builds up in various organs, including the liver, and causes damage
- Wilsons disease —an inherited disorder that results in excessive copper accumulation in the body, which also can produce liver damage
- Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency—an inherited deficiency of a protein produced in the liver that normally functions to block the destructive effects of certain enzymes; may lead to liver disease and emphysema
- Galactosemia—an inherited disorder characterized by the inability of the body to use the simple sugar galactose; leads to an accumulation of galactose 1-phosphate, which causes damage to the liver, central nervous system, and various other body systems
- Glycogen storage diseases—a group of inherited disorders caused by a lack of one or more enzymes that results in excessive storage of glycogen in the liver and eventual liver damage
- Cystic fibrosis —a genetic disorder the can result in liver damage
- Budd-Chiari syndrome—a condition caused by a blood clot which blocks the veins that carry blood from the liver into the inferior vena cava. The vena cava is the large vein which carries blood from the left side of our body back to the heart.
- Severe adverse reactions to prescription drugs, such as isoniazid and methotrexate
- Chronic exposure to environmental toxins such as arsenic
- Repeated episodes of heart failure with liver congestion
- The parasitic infection schistosomiasis
Cirrhosis. American Liver Foundation website. Available at: http://www.liverfoundation.org/abouttheliver/info/cirrhosis . Updated December 3, 2012. Accessed April 24, 2013.
Cirrhosis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php . Updated December 27, 2012. Accessed April 24, 2013.
Cirrhosis. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/cirrhosis/index.aspx . Updated February 21, 2012. Accessed April 24, 2013.
Heidelbaugh JJ, Bruderly M. Cirrhosis and Chronic Liver Failure: Part I. Diagnosis and Evaluation. Am Fam Physician . 2006;74:756-762.
Hepatitis B. World Health Organization website. Available at: http://www.who.int/immunization/topics/hepatitis%5Fb/en/index.html . Updated July 12, 2012. Accessed April 24, 2013.
2/12/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php : Chang Y, Ryu S, et al. Weight gain within the normal weight range predicts ultrasonographically detected fatty liver in healthy Korean men. Gut . 2009;58(10):1419-1425.
- Reviewer: Marcin Chwistek, MD
- Review Date: 06/2013
- Update Date: 06/24/2013