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Risk Factors for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)/Heartburn
- Exercising or strenuous activity immediately after eating
- Lying down, bending over, or straining after eating
- Alcohol use, especially in excess
- Caffeinated products
- Citrus fruits
- Fried foods
- Foods made with tomatoes, such as pizza, chili, or spaghetti sauce
- Spicy foods
- Hiatal hernia
- Prior surgery, vagotomy
- Certain nervous system disorders
- In-dwelling nasogastric tube
- Calcium channel blockers
- Theophylline, bronchial inhalers, and other asthma medications
- Sildenafil (Viagra)
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated April 29, 2013. Accessed April 30, 2013.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Merck Manual for Health Care Professionals. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gastrointestinal%5Fdisorders/esophageal%5Fand%5Fswallowing%5Fdisorders/gastroesophageal%5Freflux%5Fdisease%5Fgerd.html. Updated May 2012. Accessed April 30, 2013.
Heartburn, gastroesophageal reflux (GER), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/gerd. Updated April 30, 2012. Accessed April 30, 2013.
Katz PO, Gerson LB, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013;108(3):302-328.
Understanding heartburn and reflux disease. American Gastroenterological Association website. Available at: http://www.gastro.org/patient-center/digestive-conditions/heartburn-gerd. Published April 25, 2010. Accessed April 30, 2010.
9/30/2008 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Jacobson BC, Moy B, et al. Postmenopausal hormone use and symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux. Arch Intern Med. 2008;168:1798-1804.
4/25/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Shimamoto T, Yamamichi N. No association of coffee consumption with gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, reflux esophagitis, and non-erosive reflux disease: a cross-sectional study of 8,013 healthy subjects in Japan. PLoS One. 2013;8(6):e65996.
- Reviewer: Daus Mahnke, MD
- Review Date: 03/2014
- Update Date: 05/08/2014