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- Labia majora and labia minora
- Vaginal opening
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- Injury or irritation of vulvar nerves
- Inflammed tissue
- Abnormal response to infection or trauma
- History of vulvodynia
- Chronic pain or disorders associated with chronic pain
- Sleep disturbances
- Some mental health disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder
- Recurrent yeast infections
- Frequent use of antibiotics
- Irritation to the genitals by soaps or detergents
- Genital rashes
- Previous treatment or surgery to the external genitals
- Pelvic nerve irritation or muscle spasms
- Tests to check for bacteria and/or yeast
- Topical medications that are applied to the skin, such as corticosteroids, estrogen, or anesthetics
- Prescription pain relievers
- Nerve stimulation or nerve blocks
The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists http://www.acog.org
National Vulvodynia Association http://www.nva.org
Canadian Women's Health Network http://www.cwhn.ca
Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada http://www.sogc.org
ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 93: diagnosis and management of vulvar skin disorders. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;111:5):1243-1253.
What is vulvodynia? National Vulvodynia Association website. Available at: http://www.nva.org/whatIsVulvodynia.html. Accessed June 26, 2013.
Vulvodynia. American Academy of Family Physicians Family Doctor website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/vulvodynia.html. Updated August 2010. Accessed June 26, 2013.
Vulvodynia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated September 25, 2013. Accessed June 26, 2013.
Vulvodynia. National Institute of Child Health & Human Development website. Available at: http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/vulvodynia/Pages/default.aspx. Updated April 3, 2013. Accessed June 26, 2013.
4/7/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance. http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Reed BD, Legocki LJ, et al. Factors associated with vulvodynia incidence. Obstet Gynecol. 2014;123(2.1):225-231.
- Reviewer: Andrea Chisholm, MD
- Review Date: 03/2013
- Update Date: 00/40/2014