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Risk Factors for Periodontal Disease
- Smoking—Smoking greatly increases your risk of developing periodontal disease. It also greatly reduces the chance that treatments for periodontal disease will be effective.
- Poor nutrition—An unhealthy diet, such as one that is high in fat and low in vitamin C, can increase your chance of periodontal disease.
- Stress—Stress can reduce your body’s ability to fight off the infection that prompts periodontal disease.
- Metabolic syndrome—A condition marked by elevated blood pressure, cholesterol, blood glucose, and body weight. Excess weight centered around the midsection is of particular concern.
In girls and women: conditions that cause changes in hormone levels, such as
- Herpes infections
- Autoimmune diseases, including
- Down syndrome
- Wegener’s granulomatosis
- Having poor dental hygiene
- Living in poverty
- Having badly fitting dentures and/or uneven fillings or crowns
- Being a habitual mouth breather
Gum disease. American Dental Association's Mouth Healthy website. Available at: http://www.mouthhealthy.org/en/az-topics/g/gum-disease. Accessed October 14, 2013.
Gum disease information. American Academy of Periodontology website. Available at: http://www.perio.org/consumer/gum-disease.htm. Accessed October 14, 2013.
Periodontal (gum) disease. National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research website. Available at: http://www.nidcr.nih.gov/DataStatistics/FindDataByTopic/GumDisease. Accessed October 14, 2013.
5/28/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Nibali L, Tatarakis N, et al. Clinical review: Association between metabolic syndrome and periodontitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98(3):913-920.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 09/2013
- Update Date: 00/52/2014