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Risk Factors for Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD)
- Habitually clenching and unclenching your jaw
- Lip biting
- Grinding your teeth during the day and/or at night in your sleep
- Constantly or very regularly chewing things, such as gum or ice, for long periods of time
- Misaligned teeth or misaligned bite
- Jaw or facial deformities
- Arthritic conditions, such as:
- Synovitis, an inflammation of the membrane that lines the temporomandibular joint
- History of jaw or facial injuries such as fractures or dislocations of the jaw
- Muscle pain or spasm of the chewing muscles
- Psychological illness
Other Risk Factors
Siccoli MM. Facial pain: a clinical differential diagnosis. Lancet Neurol. 2006;5:257-267.
TMJ. American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery website. Available at: http://www.entnet.org/HealthInformation/tmj.cfm. Updated December 2010. Accessed April 5, 2013.
TMJ. American Dental Association Mouth Healthy website. Available at: http://www.mouthhealthy.org/en/az-topics/t/tmj.aspx. Accessed April 5, 2013.
TMJ (temporomandibular joint and muscle disorders). National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research website. Available at: http://www.nidcr.nih.gov/OralHealth/Topics/TMJ. Updated March 21, 2013. Accessed April 5, 2013.
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php. Updated November 27, 2012. Accessed April 5, 2013.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 02/2014
- Update Date: 06/24/2013