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Risk Factors for Infertility in Women
|Fallopian Tube, Ovary, and Uterus|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
- Endometriosis—Uterine tissue implanted on other pelvic structures can interfere with normal functioning.
- Sexually transmitted diseases—Infections, such as gonorrhea or chlamydia, often produce no symptoms in women. If left untreated, these infections can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, which may cause scarring and adhesions that block the fallopian tubes.
- History of ectopic pregnancy—When a fertilized egg begins to develop within the fallopian tube, it can cause the tube to rupture. As the injury heals, scar tissue may block the tube, thereby reducing fertility.
- Congenital anatomical abnormalities in the reproductive tract
- History of abnormal Pap smears or infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) that have resulted in cervical treatments such as cryosurgery or cone biopsy
- History of two or more spontaneous miscarriages or elective abortions
- Pelvic surgery (including uterine surgery)
- Uterine fibroids
Personal or family history of autoimmune disorders such as:
- Kidney disease, including kidney failure
- Cirrhosis (scarring) of the liver
- Sickle cell anemia
- HIV infection
- Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease
- Appendicitis with complications (such as ruptured appendix)
- Chemotherapeutic agents used to treat cancer
- Acetaminophen (Tylenol)—if taken chronically
- Ibuprofen (Advil, Aleve, Motrin)—if taken chronically
- Pain medicines
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists website. Available at: http://www.acog.org. Accessed November 2009.
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Diabetes and pregnancy. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists website. Available at: http://www.acog.org/publications/patient%5Feducation/bp051.cfm. Accessed July 2010.
American Medical Association website. Available at: http://www.ama-assn.org.
American Society for Reproductive Medicine website. Available at: http://www.asrm.org.
Cronin M, Schellschmidt I, Dinger J. Rate of pregnancy after using drospirenone and other progestin-containing oral contraceptives. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;114:616-622.
International Council on Infertility Information Dissemination, Inc. website. Available at: http://www.inciid.org.
RESOLVE: The National Infertility Association website. Available at: http://www.resolve.org.
United States National Library of Medicine: National Institutes of Health website. Available at: http://www.nlm.nih.gov.
6/5/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: Luttjeboer FY, Verhoeve HR, van Dessel HJ, et al. The value of medical history taking as risk indicator for tuboperitoneal pathology: a systematic review. BJOG. 2009;116:612-625.
- Reviewer: Andrea Chisholm, MD
- Review Date: 12/2013
- Update Date: 00/11/2014