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Risk Factors for Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
- Urinary tract anatomical defects
- Vesicoureteral reflux (urine washes back up the ureter into the kidneys)
- Weakened immune system
- Kidney stones
- Enlarged prostate gland
- Paraplegia or quadriplegia (body paralysis)
- History of kidney transplant
- Sickle cell anemia
- Nervous system disorders that make it difficult for you to completely empty your bladder
Medical Devices and Procedures
- For females—using a diaphragm for birth control or having a partner who uses condoms with spermicidal foam
- Having a urinary catheter inserted
- Having surgery on the urinary tract
Acute cystitis in adults. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php . Updated August 31, 2012. Accessed August 13, 2012.
Griffith’s 5-Minute Clinical Consult . Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001.
Urinary tract infections in adults. American Urological Association Foundation website. http://www.urologyhealth.org/urology/index.cfm?article=47 . Accessed September 11, 2012.
Urinary tract infections in adults. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/utiadult/ . Updated May 24, 2012. Accessed September 11, 2012.
- Reviewer: Adrienne Carmack, MD
- Review Date: 09/2013
- Update Date: 09/30/2013