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Other Proposed Natural Treatments
- Ayurvedic Herbal Combinations
- Black Tea
- Fish Oil
- Eclipta alba
- Green Coffee Bean Extract
- Grape Juice
- Achillea wilhelmsii
- Olive Leaf
- Milk fermented by Probiotics
- Tai Chi
- Vitamin C
Principal Proposed Natural Treatments
Coenzyme Q 10
Other Proposed Natural Treatments
1 Silagy CA, Neil HA. A meta-analysis of the effect of garlic on blood pressure. J Hypertens. 1994;12:463-468.
2 Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy: A Physicians' Guide to Herbal Medicine. 3rd ed. Berlin Germany: Springer-Verlag; 1998:119.
3 Auer W, Eiber A, Hertkorn E, et al. Hypertension and hyperlipidaemia: garlic helps in mild cases. Br J Clin Pract Suppl. 1990;69:3-6.
7 Singh RB, Niaz MA, Rastogi SS, et al. Effect of hydrosoluble coenzyme Q 10 on blood pressures and insulin resistance in hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease. J Hum Hypertens. 1999;13:203-208.
8 Digiesi V, Cantini F, Brodbeck B. Effect of coenzyme Q 10 on essential arterial hypertension. Curr Ther Res. 1990;47:841-845.
9 Langsjoen P, Langsjoen P, Willis R, et al. Treatment of essential hypertension with coenzyme Q 10 . Mol Aspects Med. 1994;15(suppl):S265-S272.
10 Digiesi V, Cantini F, Oradei A, et al. Coenzyme Q 10 in essential hypertension. Mol Aspects Med. 1994;15(suppl):S257-S263.
12 Chan P, Tomlinson B, Chen YJ, et al. A double-blind placebo-controlled study of the effectiveness and tolerability of oral stevioside in human hypertension. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2000;50:215-220.
15 Lungershausen YK, Abbey M, Nestel PJ, et al. Reduction of blood pressure and plasma triglycerides by omega-3 fatty acids in treated hypertensives. J Hypertens. 1994;12:1041-1045.
16 Radack K, Deck C, Huster G. The effects of low doses of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on blood pressure in hypertensive subjects. A randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 1991;151:1173-1180.
17 Singer P, Jaeger W, Wirth M, et al. Lipid and blood-pressure-lowering effect of mackerel diet in man. Atherosclerosis. 1983;49:99-108.
18 Singer P, Melzer S, Goschel M, et al. Fish oil amplifies the effect of propranolol in mild essential hypertension. Hypertension. 1990;16:682-691.
19 Appel LJ, Miller ER III, Seidler AJ, et al. Does supplementation of diet with 'fish oil' reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Arch Intern Med. 1993;153:1429-1438.
20 Whelton PK, Kumanyika SK, Cook NR, et al. Efficacy of nonpharmacologic interventions in adults with high-normal blood pressure: results from phase 1 of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention. Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Research Group. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65(suppl 2):S652-S660.
21 Mori TA, Bao DQ, Burke V, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid but not eicosapentaenoic acid lowers ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate in humans. Hypertension. 1999; 34:253-260.
22 Sanjuliani AF, de Abreu Fagundes VG, Francischetti EA. Effects of magnesium on blood pressure and intracellular ion levels of Brazilian hypertensive patients. Int J Cardiol. 1996;56:177-183.
23 Witteman JC, Grobbee DE, Derkx FH, et al. Reduction of blood pressure with oral magnesium supplementation in women with mild to moderate hypertension. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;60:129-135.
24 Dyckner T, Wester PO. Effect of magnesium on blood pressure. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1983;286:1847-1849.
25 Henderson DG, Schierup J, Schodt T. Effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure and electrolyte concentrations in hypertensive patients receiving long term diuretic treatment. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1986;293:664-665.
26 Whelton PK, He J, Cutler JA, et al. Effects of oral potassium on blood pressure. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. JAMA. 1997;277:1624-1632.
27 Whelton PK, Buring J, Borhani NO, et al. The effect of potassium supplementation in persons with a high-normal blood pressure. Results from phase I of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention (TOHP). Trials of Hypertension Prevention (TOPH) Collaborative Research Group. Ann Epidemiol. 1995;5:85-95.
28 Davis BR, Oberman A, Blaufox MD, et al. Lack of effectiveness of a low-sodium/high-potassium diet in reducing antihypertensive medication requirements in overweight persons with mild hypertension. TAIM Research Group. Trial of Antihypertensive Interventions and Management. Am J Hypertens. 1994;7:926-932.
29 Cappuccio FP, Elliott P, Allender PS, et al. Epidemiologic association between dietary calcium intake and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of published data. Am J Epidemiol. 1995;142:935-945.
30 Van Leer EM, Seidell JC, Kromhout D. Dietary calcium, potassium, magnesium and blood pressure in the Netherlands. Int J Epidemiol. 1995;24:1117-1123.
31 Bostick RM, Fosdick L, Grandits GA, et al. Effect of calcium supplementation on serum cholesterol and blood pressure. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Arch Fam Med. 2000;9:31-38.
32 Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy: A Physicians' Guide to Herbal Medicine 3rd ed. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag; 1998:97.
33 Duffy SJ, Gokce N, Holbrook M, et al. Treatment of hypertension with ascorbic acid. Lancet. 1999;354:2048.
34 Osilesi O, Trout DL, Ogunwole JO, et al. Blood pressure and plasma lipids during ascorbic acid supplementation in borderline hypertensive and normotensive adults. Nutr Res. 1991;11:405-412.
35 Fotherby MD, Williams JC, Forster LA, et al. Effect of vitamin C on ambulatory blood pressure and plasma lipids in older persons. J Hypertens. 2000;18:411-415.
36 Ghosh SK, Ekpo EB, Shah IU, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel trial of vitamin C treatment in elderly patients with hypertension. Gerontology. 1994;40:268-272.
37 Lovat LB, Lu Y, Palmer AJ, et al. Double-blind trial of vitamin C in elderly hypertensives. J Hum Hypertens. 1993;7:403-405.
38 Asgary S, Naderi GH, Sarrafzadegan N, et al. Antihypertensive and antihyperlipidemic effects of Achillea wilhelmsii.Drugs Exp Clin Res. 2000;26:89-93.
39 Arvill A, Bodin L. Effect of short-term ingestion of konjac glucomannan on serum cholesterol in healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;61:585-589.
40 Reffo GC. Glucomannan in hypertensive outpatients: pilot clinical trial. Curr Ther Res. 1988;44:22-27.
41 Vuksan V, Jenkins DJ, Spadafora P, et al. Konjac-mannan (glucomannan) improves glycemia and other associated risk factors for coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes. A randomized controlled metabolic trial. Diabetes Care. 1999;22:913-919.
42 Kato H, Taguchi T, Okuda H, et al. Antihypertensive effect of chitosan in rats and humans. J Tradit Med. 1994;11:198-205.
43 Haji Faraji M, Haji Tarkhani AH. The effect of sour tea ( Hibiscus sabdariffa ) on essential hypertension. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999;65:231-236.
44 Chiu KW, Fung AY. The cardiovascular effects of green beans ( Phaseolus aureus ), common rue ( Ruta graveolens ), and kelp ( Laminaria japonica ) in rats. Gen Pharmac. 1997;29:859-862.
45 Fuller KE, Casparian JM. Vitamin D: balancing cutaneous and systematic considerations. South Med J. 2001;94:58-64.
46 Rostand SG. Ultraviolet light may contribute to geographic and racial blood pressure differences. Hypertension. 1997;30(2 pt 1):150-156.
47 Krause R, Buhring M, Hopfenmuller W, et al. Ultraviolet B and blood pressure [letter]. Lancet. 1998;352:709-710.
48 Scragg R. Sunlight, vitamin D, and cardiovascular disease. In: Crass MF II, Avioli LV, eds. Calcium Regulating Hormones and Cardiovascular Function. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1995:213-237.
49 O'Connell TD, Simpson RU. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and cardiac muscle structure and function. In: Crass MF II, Avioli LV, eds. Calcium-Regulating Hormones and Cardiovascular Function. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1995:191-211.
50 Merchant RE, Andre CA. A review of recent clinical trials of the nutritional supplement Chlorella pyrenoidosa in the treatment of fibromyalgia, hypertension, and ulcerative colitis. Altern Ther Health Med. 2001;7:79-80,82-91.
51 Gu D, He J, Wu X, et al. Effect of potassium supplementation on blood pressure in Chinese: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Hypertens. 2001;19:1325-1331.
52 Hosseini S, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective, 16 week crossover study to determine the role of Pycnogenol in modifying blood pressure in mildly hypertensive patients. Nutrition Research. 2001; 21:1251-1260.
53 Burke BE, Neuenschwander R, Olson RD. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of coenzyme Q10 in isolated systolic hypertension. South Med J. 2001;94:1112-1117.
54 Walker AF, Marakis G, Morris AP, et al. Promising hypotensive effect of hawthorn extract: a randomized double-blind pilot study of mild, essential hypertension. Phytother Res. 2002;16:48-54.
55 Ammon HPT, Handel M. Crataegus, toxicology and pharmacology. Parts I, II and III [translated from German]. Planta Med. 1981;43:105-120,209-239,313-322.
56 Geleijnse JM, Giltay EJ, Grobbee DE, et al. Blood pressure response to fish oil supplementation: metaregression analysis of randomized trials. J Hypertens. 2002;20:1493-1499.
57 Mori TA, Bao DQ, Burke V, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid but not eicosapentaenoic acid lowers ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate in humans. Hypertension. 1999;34:253-260.
58 Porsti I, Makynen H. Dietary calcium intake: effects on central blood pressure control. Semin Nephrol. 1995;15:550-563.
59 Griffith LE, Guyatt GH, Cook RJ, Bucher HC, Cook DJ. The influence of dietary and nondietary calcium supplementation on blood pressure: an updated metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Hypertens. 1999;12(1 Pt 1):84-92.
60 Hajjar IM, George V, Sasse EA, et al. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of vitamin C in the management of hypertension and lipids. Am J Ther. 2002;9:289-293.
61 Nissen S, Sharp RL, Panton L, et al. ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation in humans is safe and may decrease cardiovascular risk factors. J Nutr. 2000;130:1937-1945.
62 Hodgson JM, Watts GF, Playford DA, et al. Coenzyme Q(10) improves blood pressure and glycaemic control: a controlled trial in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002;56:1137-1142.
63 Nakao M, Yano E, Nomura S, Kuboki T. Blood pressure-lowering effects of biofeedback treatment in hypertension: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Hypertens Res. 2003;26:37-46.
64 Seppo L, Jauhiainen T, Poussa T, et al. A fermented milk high in bioactive peptides has a blood pressure-lowering effect in hypertensive subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77:326-330.
65 Inoue K, Shirai T, Ochiai H, et al. Blood-pressure-lowering effect of a novel fermented milk containing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mild hypertensives. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003;57:490-495.
66 Kim MK, Sasaki S, Sasazuki S, et al. Lack of long-term effect of vitamin C supplementation on blood pressure. Hypertension. 2002;40:797-803.
67 Mangoni AA, Sherwood RA, Swift CG, et al. Folic acid enhances endothelial function and reduces blood pressure in smokers: a randomized controlled trial. J Intern Med. 2002;252:497-503.
68 van Montfrans GA, Karemaker JM, Wieling W, et al. Relaxation therapy and continuous ambulatory blood pressure in mild hypertension: a controlled study. BMJ. 1990;300:1368-1372.
69 Ishikawa-Takata K, Ohta T, Tanaka H. How much exercise is required to reduce blood pressure in essential hypertensives: a dose-response study. Am J Hypertens. 2003;16:629-633.
70 Hsieh MH, Chan P, Sue YM, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of oral stevioside in patients with mild essential hypertension: a two-year, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Clin Ther. 2003;25:2797-808.
71 Vickers A, Goyal N, Harland R, et al. Do certain countries produce only positive results? A systematic review of controlled trials. Control Clin Trials. 1998;19:159-166.
72 Naismith DJ, Braschi A. The effect of low-dose potassium supplementation on blood pressure in apparently healthy volunteers. Br J Nutr. 2003;90:53-60.
73 Ward NC, Hodgson JM, Croft KD, et al. Effects of vitamin C and grape-seed polyphenols on blood pressure in treated hypertensive individuals: results of a randomised double blind, placebo-controlled trial. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2003;12(suppl):S18.
74 Scheer FA, Van Montfrans GA, Van Someren EJ, et al. Daily nighttime melatonin reduces blood pressure in male patients with essential hypertension. Hypertension. 2004 Jan 19. [Epub ahead of print]
75 Herrera-Arellano A, Flores-Romero S, Chavez-Soto MA, et al. Effectiveness and tolerability of a standardized extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa in patients with mild to moderate hypertension: a controlled and randomized clinical trial. Phytomedicine. 2004;11:375-82.
76 Tsai JC, Wang WH, Chan P, et al. The beneficial effects of tai chi chuan on blood pressure and lipid profile and anxiety status in a randomized controlled trial. J Altern Complement Med. 2003;9:747-754.
77 Goertz CH, Grimm RH, Svendsen K, et al. Treatment of Hypertension with Alternative Therapies (THAT) study: a randomized clinical trial. J Hypertens. 2002;20:2063-2068.
78 Elley R, Bagrie E, Arroll B, et al. Do snacks of exercise lower blood pressure? A randomised crossover trial. N Z Med J. 2006;119:U1996.
79 Whelton SP, Hyre AD, Pedersen B, et al. Effect of dietary fiber intake on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials. J Hypertens. 2005;23:475-481.
80 Streppel MT, Arends LR, van 't Veer P, et al. Dietary Fiber and Blood Pressure: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trials. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:150-6.
81 Jauhiainen T, Vapaatalo H, Poussa T, et al. Lactobacillus helveticus Fermented Milk Lowers Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Subjects in 24-h Ambulatory Blood Pressure Measurement. Am J Hypertens. 2005;18:1600-16005.
82 Rylander RC, Arnaud MJ. Mineral water intake reduces blood pressure among subjects with low urinary magnesium and calcium levels. BMC Public Health. 2004 Nov 30. [Epub ahead of print] .
83 Reshef N, Hayari Y, Goren C, et al. Antihypertensive effect of sweetie fruit in patients with stage I hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2005;18:1360-1363.
84 Engelhard YN, Gazer B, Paran E, et al. Natural antioxidants from tomato extract reduce blood pressure in patients with grade-1 hypertension: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Am Heart J. 2006;151:100.
85 Cagnacci A, Cannoletta M, Renzi A, et al. Prolonged melatonin administration decreases nocturnal blood pressure in women. Am J Hypertens. 2005;18:1614-1618.
86 Kozuma K, Tsuchiya S, Kohori J, et al. Antihypertensive effect of green coffee bean extract on mildly hypertensive subjects. Hypertens Res. 2006;28:711-718.
87 Engelhard YN, Gazer B, Paran E, et al. Natural antioxidants from tomato extract reduce blood pressure in patients with grade-1 hypertension: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Am Heart J. 2005;151:100.
88 Park YK, Kim JS, Kang MH, et al. Concord grape juice supplementation reduces blood pressure in Korean hypertensive men: Double-blind, placebo controlled intervention trial. Biofactors. 2005;22:145-147.
89 Walker AF, Marakis G, Simpson E, et al. Hypotensive effects of hawthorn for patients with diabetes taking prescription drugs: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Gen Pract. 2006;56:437-443.
90 Asgary S, Naderi GH, Sadeghi M, et al. Antihypertensive effect of Iranian Crataegus curvisepala Lind.: a randomized, double-blind study. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 2005;30:221-225.
91 Grassi D, Necozione S, Lippi C, et al. Cocoa reduces blood pressure and insulin resistance and improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in hypertensives. Hypertension. 2005 Jul 18. [Epub ahead of print]
92 He J, Gu D, Wu X, et al. Effect of soybean protein on blood pressure: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 2005;143:1-9.
93 Arakawa K, Saruta T, Abe K, et al. Improvement of accessory symptoms of hypertension by TSUMURA Orengedokuto Extract, a four herbal drugs containing Kampo-Medicine granules for ethical use: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Phytomedicine. 2005;13:1-10.
94 Hutchins AM, McIver IE, Johnston CS, et al. Hypertensive crisis associated with high dose soy isoflavone supplementation in a post-menopausal woman: a case report [ISRCTN98074661]. BMC Womens Health. 2005 Jun 23. [Epub ahead of print]
95 Ward NC, Wu JH, Clarke MW, et al. The effect of vitamin E on blood pressure in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Hypertens. 2007;25:227-234.
96 Bui LT, Nguyen DT, Ambrose PJ. Blood pressure and heart rate effects following a single dose of bitter orange. Ann Pharmacother. 2006;40:53-57.
97 Watanabe T, Arai Y, Mitsui Y, et al. The blood pressure-lowering effect and safety of chlorogenic Acid from green coffee bean extract in essential hypertension. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2006;28:439-49.
98 Grassi D, Necozione S, Lippi C, et al. Cocoa reduces blood pressure and insulin resistance and improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in hypertensives. Hypertension. 2005 Jul 18. [Epub ahead of print]
99 Grossman E, Laudon M, Yalcin R, et al. Melatonin reduces night blood pressure in patients with nocturnal hypertension. Am J Med. 2006;119:898-902.
100 Macklin EA, Wayne PM, Kalish LA, et al. Stop hypertension with the acupuncture research program (SHARP). Results of a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Hypertension. 2006 Oct 2. [Epub ahead of print]
101 Paschos GK, Magkos F, Panagiotakos DB, et al. Dietary supplementation with flaxseed oil lowers blood pressure in dyslipidaemic patients. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jan 31. [Epub ahead of print]
102 Teede HJ, Giannopoulos D, Dalais FS, et al. Randomised, controlled, cross-over trial of soy protein with isoflavones on blood pressure and arterial function in hypertensive subjects. J Am Coll Nutr. 2006;25:533-540.
103 Herrera-Arellano A, Miranda-Sanchez J, Avila-Castro P, et al. Clinical effects produced by a standardized herbal medicinal product of Hibiscus sabdariffa on patients with hypertension: a randomized, double-blind, lisinopril-controlled clinical trial. Planta Med. 2007;73:6-12.
104 Theobald HE, Goodall AH, Sattar N, et al. Low-dose docosahexaenoic acid lowers diastolic blood pressure in middle-aged men and women. J Nutr. 2007;137:973-978.
105 Yin C, Seo B, Park HJ, et al. Acupuncture, a promising adjunctive therapy for essential hypertension: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Neurol Res. 2007;29(suppl):98-103.
106 McMackin CJ, Widlansky ME, Hamburg NM, et al. Effect of combined treatment with alpha-lipoic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine on vascular function and blood pressure in patients with coronary artery disease. J Clin Hypertens. 2007;9:249-255.
107 Bergel E, Barros AJ. Effect of maternal calcium intake during pregnancy on children blood pressure: a systematic review of the literature. BMC Pediatr. 2007 Mar 26. [Epub ahead of print].
108 McMahon JA, Skeaff CM, Williams SM, et al. Lowering homocysteine with B vitamins has no effect on blood pressure in older adults. J Nutr. 2007;137:1183-7118.
109 Rangineni V, Sharada D, Saxena S. Diuretic, hypotensive, and hypocholesterolemic effects of Eclipta alba in mild hypertensive subjects: a pilot study. J Med Food. 2007;10:143-148.
110 Shah M, Adams-Huet B, Garg A. Effect of high-carbohydrate or high-cis-monounsaturated fat diets on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of intervention trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85:1251-1256.
111 Flachskampf FA, Gallasch J, Gefeller O, et al. Randomized trial of acupuncture to lower blood pressure. Circulation. 2007 Jun 4. [Epub ahead of print]
112 Taubert D, MD, Roesen R, Lehmann C, et al. Effects of low habitual cocoa intake on blood pressure and bioactive nitric oxide. JAMA. 2007;298:49-60.
113 Lee MS, Pittler MH, Guo R, et al. Qigong for hypertension: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. J Hypertens. 2007;25:1525-1532.
114 Vuksan V, Whitham D, Sievenpiper JL, et al. Supplementation of conventional therapy with the novel grain salba ( Salvia hispanica L. ) improves major and emerging cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: results of a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 2007 Aug 8. [Epub ahead of print]
115 Inoue K, Shirai T, Ochiai H, et al. Blood-pressure-lowering effect of a novel fermented milk containing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mild hypertensives. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003;57:490-495.
116 Hayakawa K, Kimura M, Yamori Y. Role of the renal nerves in gamma-aminobutyric acid-induced antihypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005;524:120-125.
117 Hayakawa K, Kimura M, Kasaha K, et al. Effect of a gamma-aminobutyric acid-enriched dairy product on the blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. Br J Nutr. 2004;92:411-417.
118 Hayakawa K, Kimura M, Kasaha K, et al. Effect of a gamma-aminobutyric acid-enriched dairy product on the blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. Br J Nutr. 2004;92:411-417.
119 Hayakawa K, Kimura M, Kamata K. Mechanism underlying gamma-aminobutyric acid-induced antihypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2002;438:107-113.
120 Yamakoshi J, Fukuda S, Satoh T, et al. Antihypertensive and natriuretic effects of less-sodium soy sauce containing gamma-aminobutyric acid in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2007;71:165-173.
121 Hirata H, Kimura M, Nakagawa S, et al. Hypotensive effect of fermented milk containing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in subjects with high normal blood pressure. Journal of the Japanese Society for Food Science and Technology. 2004;51:79-86.
122 Rogers PJ, Smith JE, Heatherley SV, et al. Time for tea: mood, blood pressure and cognitive performance effects of caffeine and theanine administered alone and together. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007 Sep 23. [Epub ahead of print]
123 Edwards RL, Lyon T, Litwin SE, et al. Quercetin reduces blood pressure in hypertensive subjects. J Nutr. 2007;137:2405-2411.
124 Guo X, Zhou B, Nishimura T, et al. Clinical effect of Qigong practice on essential hypertension: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Jan 16.
125 Heather OD, Fiona C, Fiona RB, et al. Relaxation therapies for the management of primary hypertension in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;CD004935
126 Anderson JW, Liu C, Kryscio RJ. Blood pressure response to transcendental meditation: a meta-analysis. Am J Hypertens. 2008;21:310-316.
127 Rainforth MV, Schneider RH, Nidich SI, et al. Stress reduction programs in patients with elevated blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2007;9:520-528.
128 Yeh GY, Wang C, Wayne PM, et al. The effect of tai chi exercise on blood pressure: a systematic review. Prev Cardiol. 2008;11:82-89.
129 Vickers A, Goyal N, Harland R, et al. Do certain countries produce only positive results? A systematic review of controlled trials. Control Clin Trials. 1998;19:159-166.
130 Barriocanal LA, Palacios M, Benitez G, et al. Apparent lack of pharmacological effect of steviol glycosides used as sweeteners in humans. A pilot study of repeated exposures in some normotensive and hypotensive individuals and in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetics. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2008 Mar 5.
131 Rosero Arenas MA, Rosero Arenas E, Portaceli Arminana MA, et al. Usefulness of phyto-oestrogens in reduction of blood pressure. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Aten Primaria. 2008;40:177-186.
132 Silagy CA, Neil HA. A meta-analysis of the effect of garlic on blood pressure. J Hypertens. 1994;12:463-468.
133 Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy: A Physicians' Guide to Herbal Medicine. 3rd ed. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag; 1998: 119.
134 Auer W, Eiber A, Hertkorn E, et al. Hypertension and hyperlipidaemia: garlic helps in mild cases. Br J Clin Pract Suppl. 1990;69:3-6.
135 Ried K, Frank OR, Stocks NP, et al. Effect of garlic on blood pressure: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2008 Jun 16.
136 Hooper L, Kroon PA, Rimm EB, et al. Flavonoids, flavonoid-rich foods, and cardiovascular risk: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88:38-50.
137 Erkkila AT, Schwab US, de Mello VD, et al. Effects of fatty and lean fish intake on blood pressure in subjects with coronary heart disease using multiple medications. Eur J Nutr. 2008 Jul 29.
138 Mozaffari-Khosravi H, Jalali-Khanabadi BA, Afkhami-Ardekani M, et al. The effects of sour tea ( Hibiscus sabdariffa ) on hypertension in patients with type II diabetes. J Hum Hypertens. 2008 Aug 7
139 Margolis KL, Ray RM, Van Horn L, et al. Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on blood pressure: the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Trial. Hypertension. 2008;52:847-855.
140 Lee H, Kim SY, Park J, et al. Acupuncture for lowering blood pressure: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Hypertens. 2009;22:122-128.
141 Greenhalgh J, Dickson R, Dundar Y. Biofeedback for hypertension: a systematic review. J Hypertens. 2010 Jan 19 early online.
142 Wahabi HA, Alansary LA, Al-Sabban AH, et al. The effectiveness of Hibiscus sabdariffa in the treatment of hypertension: a systematic review. Phytomedicine. 2010;17(2):83.
143 Modesti PA, Ferrari A, Bazzini C, et al. Psychological predictors of the antihypertensive effects of music-guided slow breathing. J Hypertens. 2010;28(5):1097.
144 Akilen R, Tsiami A, Devendra D, Robinson N. Glycated haemoglobin and blood pressure-lowering effect of cinnamon in multi-ethnic Type 2 diabetic patients in the UK: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Diabet Med. 2010;27(10):1159-1167.
145 Hodgson JM, Puddey IB, Woodman RJ, et al. Effects of black tea on blood pressure: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 2012;172(2):186-188.
146 Susalit E, Agus N, Effendi I, et al. Olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract effective in patients with stage-1 hypertension: comparison with Captopril. Phytomedicine. 2011;18(4):251-258.
147 Ried K, Sullivan TR, Fakler P, et al. Effect of cocoa on blood pressure. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;8:CD008893.
148 Lin G, Xiang Q, Fu X. Heart rate variability biofeedback decreases blood pressure in prehypertensive subjects by improving autonomic function and baroreflex. J Altern Complement Med. 2012;18(2):143-152.
149 Tyagi A, Cohen M. Yoga and hypertension: A systematic review. Altern Ther Health Med. 2014;20(2):32-59.
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 09/2014
- Update Date: 09/18/2014