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Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
- Hormonal changes
- Family history of PMDD
- Extra stress or a traumatic life event
- Depression or another mental health condition
|Microscopic View of Hormone Receptor|
|Menstruation causes many hormonal changes, which may play a role in PMDD.|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
- Extreme sadness
- Frequent crying
- Unusually strong cravings for certain foods
- Difficulty concentrating or paying attention
- Panic attacks
- Mood swings
- Fatigue or lack of energy
- Physical symptoms, such as sore breasts, headaches, joint or muscle pain, swelling, or bloating
- Blood tests
- Tests to check hormone levels
- Exercise throughout the week.
- Get plenty of rest.
- Eat a balanced diet with plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
- Avoid alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine.
- Learn stress management techniques.
- Improve your sleep habits.
- Oral contraceptives
- Nutritional supplements
- Get plenty of exercise and rest
- Eat a well-balanced diet
- Manage stress
American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists http://www.acog.org
Office on Women's Health http://www.womenshealth.gov
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada http://www.sogc.org
PMS and PMDD. MGH Center for Women's Health website. Available at: http://womensmentalhealth.org/specialty-clinics/pms-and-pmdd. Accessed September 25, 2014.
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). American Academy of Family Physicians Family Doctor website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/premenstrual-dysphoric-disorder.html. Updated April 2014. Accessed September 25, 2014.
Premenstrual syndrome. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated July 8, 2014. Accessed September 25, 2014.
- Reviewer: Andrea Chisholm, MD
- Review Date: 08/2014
- Update Date: 09/30/2013