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Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy
(Cerebral Hypoxia; HIE)
|Blood Supply to the Brain|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
- Respiratory failure
- Blocked or ruptured blood vessel
- Carbon monoxide or cyanide poisoning
- Drug overdose
- Lack of oxygen due to smoke inhalation
- Extremely low blood pressure
- Cardiac arrest
- High altitudes
- Compression or injury to the trachea that reduces or stops breathing
- Complications from general anesthesia
- Diseases or drugs that cause paralysis of the respiratory organs or muscles, such as myasthenia gravis and Guillain-Barre syndrome
- Difficulty paying attention
- Poor judgment
- Poor coordination
- Intense emotions
- Extreme drowsiness
Severe oxygen deprivation:
- Loss of consciousness
- Blue-colored skin or lips
- Difficulty breathing
- Life-sustaining treatment—If brain function has stopped, but damage is not yet extensive, life-sustaining treatment is given.
- Mechanical ventilation —This may be used if you are unable to breathe without assistance.
- Treatments for the circulatory system—Treatments are given to maintain heart function and control blood pressure.
- Seizure control—Medication and general anesthesia may be given to control seizures.
- Cooling—Hypoxic brain damage is often caused by heat. Cooling blankets or other means of cooling may be applied to reduce the body's temperature.
- Hyperbaric oxygen treatment —This treatment is used in cases of carbon monoxide poisoning.
Brain Injury Association of America http://www.biausa.org
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke http://www.ninds.nih.gov
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Ontario Brain Injury Association http://www.obia.on.ca
Brain injury secondary to carotid intervention [review]. J Endovasc Ther. 2007;14:219-231.
Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Neurographics website. Available at: http://www.neurographics.org/2/1/1/4.shtml. Accessed August 1, 2013.
Itoo BA, Al-Hawsawi ZM, Khan AH. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Incidence and risk factors in North Western Saudi Arabia. Saudi Medical Journal. 2003;24:147-153.
- Reviewer: Rimas Lukas, MD
- Review Date: 05/2014
- Update Date: 05/30/2014