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- Playing an essential role in the blood-clotting process by making the proteins that stop bleeding
- Helping your body make other proteins essential for blood, bones, and kidneys
Adequate Intake (AI)
Vitamin K Deficiency
- Easy bruising and bleeding ( nosebleeds , bleeding gums, blood in the urine, blood in the stool, or extremely heavy menstrual bleeding)
- Bleeding in the skull (intracranial hemorrhage) in infants
Vitamin K Toxicity
Major Food Sources
Vitamin K Content
|Spinach, raw||1 cup||145|
|Broccoli, cooked||1 cup (chopped)||220|
|Kale, raw||1 cup (chopped)||547|
|Leaf lettuce (green), raw||1 cup (shredded)||62.5|
|Soybean oil||1 tbsp||25|
|Canola oil||1 tbsp||16.6|
|Swiss chard, raw||1 cup||299|
|Watercress, raw||1 cup (chopped)||85|
|Olive oil||1 tbsp||8.1|
If You Take a Blood-thinning Drug
If You Take Antibiotics
If You Have Liver Disease
If You Have a Newborn Baby
Tips For Increasing Your Vitamin K Intake
- Slice an avocado. Add a little balsamic vinegar and pepper, and scoop out for a snack. Or, mash the avocado and mix with chopped tomatoes and red onions for a refreshing salsa.
- Pack a kiwi and spoon in your lunch for an afternoon snack. The insides of the kiwi can be scooped out and eaten from this natural and easy container.
- Steam ½ cup broccoli or Brussels sprouts, add lemon juice (1 tbsp), pre-chopped garlic (1 tsp), and Dijon mustard (1 tbsp). Or add broccoli to your favorite lasagna or hot dish.
- Mix 2 (10-ounce) packages of frozen chopped spinach, thawed, well drained, 1 8-ounce package of softened low-fat cream cheese, ¼ cup milk, and 1 teaspoon lemon pepper until well-blended. Spoon into a 1-quart casserole dish and sprinkle with 1/3 cup crushed crackers or seasoned croutons. Bake at 350°F (177ºC) until thoroughly heated (about 25-30 min.).
American Dietetic Association http://www.eatright.org/
Canada's Food Guide http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/
Dietitians of Canada http://www.dietitians.ca/
Booth SL, Sadowski JA, Pennington JAT. Phylloquinone (vitamin K1) content of foods in the US Food and Drug Administration’s total diet study. J Agric Food Chem . 1995; 43:1574-1579.
Duyff RL. The American Dietetic Association’s Complete Food and Nutrition Guide . Minneapolis, MN: Chronimed Publishing; 1998.
Micronutrient information center: vitamin K. The Linus Pauling Institute website. Available at: http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/vitamins/vitaminK/. Accessed June 11, 2012.
Phytonadione. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated April 11, 2011. Accessed June 1, 2011.
Vitamin K. EBSCO Natural and Alternative Treatments website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/healthLibrary/ . Updated August 2011. Accessed June 1, 2012.
Vitamin K deficiency. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated July 20, 2010. Accessed June 1, 2012.
- Reviewer: Brian Randall, MD
- Review Date: 06/2012
- Update Date: 06/11/2012