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High Blood Pressure
(Blood Pressure, High; Essential Hypertension; Idiopathic Hypertension; Primary Hypertension)
- Systolic pressure: higher number, normal reading is 120 millimeters of mercury (mmHg) or less
- Diastolic pressure: lower number, normal reading is 80 mmHg or less
|Organs Impacted by High Blood Pressure|
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- Blurry or double vision
- Abdominal pain
- Chest pain
- Shortness of breath
- Maintain a healthy weight .
- Begin a safe exercise program with the advice of your doctor.
- If you smoke, quit .
- Eat a healthful diet , one that is low fat, low salt, and rich in fiber , fruits, and vegetables. Your doctor may recommend the DASH diet , which is designed to reduce blood pressure.
- Drink alcohol in moderation (no more than two drinks per day for men, one drink per day for women).
- Manage stress .
- Beta blockers
- Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors)
- Calcium channel blockers
- Angiotensin receptor blockers
- Aldosterone blockers
- Alpha blockers
- Alpha-beta blockers
- Nervous system inhibitors
- Eat a well-balanced diet. The DASH diet —rich in fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy foods, and low in saturated fat, total fat, and cholesterol—may help keep your blood pressure in the healthy range.
- Exercise regularly.
- Maintain a healthy weight. (Your body mass index should be below 25.)
- If you smoke, quit .
- Drink alcohol in moderation. Moderate is two or fewer drinks per day for men and one or fewer drinks per day for women and older adults.
American Heart Association http://www.americanheart.org
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov
Canadian Cardiovascular Society http://www.ccs.ca
Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada http://www.heartandstroke.com
Chobanian AV. Clinical practice. Isolated systolic hypertension in the elderly. N Engl J Med . 2007;357:789-796.
Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, et al. The seventh report of the Joint National Committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure. The JNC 7 report. JAMA . 2003;289:2560-2572.
Conn HF, Rakel RE. Conn's Current Therapy 2001 . 53rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Company; 2001.
High blood pressure. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.americanheart.org/hearthub/hc-high-blood-pressure.htm . Accessed July 6, 2008.
Hypertension diagnosis and treatment (guideline). Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement website. Available at: http://www.icsi.org/guidelines%5Fand%5Fmore/guidelines%5F%5Forder%5Fsets%5F%5F%5Fprotocols/cardiovascular/hypertension%5F4/hypertension%5Fdiagnosis%5Fand%5Ftreatment%5F%5F11.html . Published 2010. Accessed May 10, 2012.
Hypertension: making the diagnosis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed . Updated April 30, 2012. Accessed May 10, 2012.
Schroeder K. The DASH diet. EBSCO Health Library website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/healthLibrary/ . Updated May 2008. Accessed July 6, 2008.
Smith N. How to measure blood pressure (in a clinical setting). EBSCO PERC website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/healthLibrary . Updated October 2007. Accessed July 6, 2008.
Smoots E. Do you have prehypertension? EBSCO Health Library website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/healthLibrary . Updated March 2008. Accessed July 6, 2008.
What is high blood pressure? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/Hbp/HBP%5FWhatIs.html . Updated April 2008. Accessed July 6, 2008.
9/2/2009 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us : Forman J, Stampfer M, Curhan G. Diet and lifestyle risk factors associated with incident hypertension in women. JAMA . 2009;302(4):401-411.
- Reviewer: Michael J. Fucci, DO
- Review Date: 09/2013
- Update Date: 09/30/2013