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Chemotherapy for Pancreatic Cancer
Cancer chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. Unlike radiation therapy and surgery, which are localized treatments, chemotherapy is a systemic treatment, meaning the drugs travel throughout the whole body. This means chemotherapy can reach cancer cells that may have spread to other areas.
Chemotherapy is usually combined with other types of treatment in an attempt to do the following:
- Cure smaller, early-stage pancreatic cancer
- Increase survival time in more advanced pancreatic cancer—this usually means only by a matter of months
- Provide some symptom relief
Chemotherapy Drugs Used for Pancreatic Cancer
- Fluorouracil (5-FU)
- Gemcitabine—first-line treatment
- Gemcitabine plus erlotinib—first-line treatment
- Streptozotocin for endocrine tumors
- Investigational agents—experimental treatments
Gemcitabine, used alone or in combination with other chemotherapy agents, seems to improve the quality of life for those with pancreatic cancer. Chemotherapy with gemcitabine improves symptoms, including pain, nausea, and vomiting in about 25% of patients. It also provides a modest increase in survival (usually only a few months).
Fluorouracil is not associated with a survival benefit. Cisplatin and some other drugs have been used in combination with gemcitabine, but are associated with more side effects.
These drugs should be used with caution in the elderly, and in those with liver or kidney disease. The elderly are at an increased risk of side effects.
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Pancreatic cancer. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated February 23, 2015. Accessed October 5, 2015.
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Yip D, Karapetis C, et al. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy for inoperable advanced pancreatic cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;3:CD002093.
- Reviewer: Mohei Abouzied, MD
- Review Date: 09/2015
- Update Date: 09/17/2014