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- Adenocarcinoma—tumors of the mucosa (the innermost layer), which make up over 90% of stomach cancers
- Lymphoma—a cancer of the immune system, which is sometimes found in the stomach wall
- Gastric stomal tumors—tumors of the stomach wall
- Carcinoid tumors—tumors of the hormone-producing cells of the stomach
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- Ethnicity and geography, more common in:
- Hispanics and African-Americans than Caucasians
- People from Japan, Korea, parts of Eastern Europe, and Latin America
- Helicobacter pylori infection
- High intake of smoked, salted, pickled food and meat, high starch/low fiber foods
- Low intake of certain vegetables, such as garlic scallions, onions, chives, leeks
- Alcohol abuse
- Previous stomach surgery
- Pernicious anemia
- Ménétrier disease (a disease that causes large folds in the stomach lining)
- Barrett's esophagus
- Blood type A
- Familial cancer syndromes: hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer and familial adenomatous polyposis
- Family history of stomach cancer
- Stomach polyps
- Indigestion, heartburn
- Abdominal pain or vague abdominal discomfort
- Nausea and vomiting
- Diarrhea or constipation
- Stomach bloating or sense of fullness after eating
- Loss of appetite
- Weakness, fatigue
- Bleeding in vomit or stool
- Stool that has turned black or tarry
- Unintended weight loss
- Fluid swelling in abdomen
- Blood tests
- Fecal occult blood test—to test for blood in the stool
- Biopsy—a tissue sample that can be examined under a microscope
- Endoscopic mucosal resection—This surgery is generally done in the early stages where the tumor is removed through an endoscope.
- Subtotal gastrectomy—This is the removal of the lower part of the stomach, leaving part of the stomach to reattached to the esophagus and small intestine.
- Total gastrectomy—This is the removal of the entire stomach. It often includes removal of nearby lymph nodes. The esophagus is attached directly to the small intestine.
- Avoid diets high in salted, pickled, and smoked foods.
- Eat at least 5 servings of fresh fruits, vegetables, and whole grain foods a day.
- Limit red meat intake.
- If you smoke, talk to your doctor about how to quit.
- Avoid or drink alcohol only in moderation. This means 2 drinks per day for men and 1 drink per day for women.
American Cancer Society http://www.cancer.org
National Cancer Institute http://www.nci.nih.gov
BC Cancer Agency http://www.cancer.ca
Cancer Care Ontario http://www.cancercare.on.ca
Cashen AF, Wildes TM. The Washington Manual; Hematology and Oncology Subspeciality Consult. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Wolter Kluwers; 2008.
Gastric carcinoma. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated September 19, 2014. Accessed September 30, 2014.
Ménétrier disease. National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse website. Available at: http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/menetrier. Updated March 12, 2014. Accessed September 30, 2014.
Stomach cancer. American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/cid/documents/webcontent/003141-pdf.pdf. Accessed September 30, 2014.
Stomach cancer. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/types/stomach. Accessed September 30, 2014.
4/29/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Zhou Y, Zhuang W, Hu W, Liu GJ, Wu TX, Wu XT. Consumption of large amounts of allium vegetables reduces risk for gastric cancer in a meta-analysis. Gastroenterology. 2011;141(1):80-89.
- Reviewer: Igor Puzanov, MD
- Review Date: 08/2014
- Update Date: 09/30/2013