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Type 2 Diabetes in Children
Learning About Type 2 Diabetes
Finding the Causes and Risk Factors
- Frequent urination
- Increased thirst
Screening and Diagnosing
- Family history: a close relative with type 2 diabetes, including mothers having diabetes or gestational diabetes
- Other conditions associated with insulin resistance, such as:
Making Lifestyle Changes
Planning healthy meals
- Eliminate regular sodas, limit carbohydrates and sugar-sweetened fruit juice, and have your child eat whole grains and vegetables.
- Count grams of carbohydrates and read food labels.
Increasing physical activity
- Encourage your child to get plenty of active play time every day.
- Plan for periods of low blood sugar caused by activity. Carry short-acting glucose or carbohydrates.
Monitoring and taking medications
- Check your child's blood sugar levels throughout the day if directed. There are different ways to check blood sugar levels. Some methods involve pricking the finger or arm and applying a drop of blood to a meter with a glucose-sensitive strip.
- Schedule regular eye and foot exams to detect and treat early vision and circulatory problems.
- Have your child's blood pressure and cholesterol levels monitored.
- To control blood sugar, have your child take medications and/or insulin injections as prescribed.
Preventing Type 2 Diabetes in Children
American Diabetes Association http://www.diabetes.org
HealthyChildren.org—American Academy of Pediatrics http://www.healthychildren.org
Canadian Diabetes Association http://www.diabetes.ca
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Am I at risk for type 2 diabetes? National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse website. Available at: http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/riskfortype2/#7. Updated July 23, 2012. Accessed January 30, 2014.
American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes—2012. Diabetes Care. 2012;35(suppl 1:S11–63).
Diabetes mellitus type 2. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated January 29, 2014. Accessed January 30, 2014.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 screening. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated January 22, 2014. Accessed January 30, 2014.
Diabetes Public Health Resource. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/. Updated January 6, 2014. Accessed January 30, 2014.
Diet and exercise delay diabetes and normalize blood glucose. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: http://www.nih.gov/news/pr/feb2002/hhs-06.htm. Published February 6, 2002. Accessed January 30, 2014.
Facts about type 2. American Diabetes Association website. Available at: http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/type-2/facts-about-type-2.html. Updated January 23, 2014. Accessed January 30, 2014.
Hopkin K. Confronting diabetes from all angles. Howard Hughes Medical Institute Bulletin. 2001:16-21.
Mansfield J. Pediatric and Adolescent Endocrinology, Joslin Diabetes Center. Personal communications. May 27, 2003 and June 5, 2003.
McLean M, Chipps D, Cheung NW. Mother to child transmission of diabetes mellitus: does gestational diabetes program type 2 diabetes in the next generation? Diabet Med. 2006;23(11):1213-1215.
Morrison JA, Friedman LA, Wang P, Glueck CJ. Metabolic syndrome in childhood predicts adult metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus 25 to 30 years later. J Pediatr. 2008;152(2):201-206.
What you need to know about type 2 diabetes in children. Children With Diabetes website. Available at: http://www.childrenwithdiabetes.com/d%5F0n%5Fd00.htm. Updated October 19, 2005. Accessed January 30, 2014.
2/15/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes—2010. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(suppl 1:S11-61).
2/15/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(suppl 1:S62-69).
8/27/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Lobelo F, Liese AD, Liu J, et al. Physical activity and electronic media use in the SEARCH for diabetes in youth case-control study. Pediatrics. 2010;125(6):e1364-71. Epub 2010 May 10.
4/14/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Xi B, Li S, et al. Intake of fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2014;9(3):e93471.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 01/2014
- Update Date: 04/14/2014