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Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes
|Fetus with Amniotic Sac|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
- Preterm delivery—baby is born prematurely and is not fully developed
- Placental abruption—placenta separates from the uterus before the baby is delivered
- Prolapsed umbilical cord—umbilical cord is squeezed between the baby and the pelvis
- Infection in the uterus or baby
- Early dilation of the cervix (may be due to the weight of baby and placenta, or changes in the cervix itself)
- Infections of the vagina, uterus, or membranes surrounding the fetus
- Premature labor (occurring previously in the same pregnancy)
- PPROM in earlier pregnancies
- Infection in the amniotic sac
- Other infections in mother (chlamydia, bacterial vaginosis)
- Preterm labor
- Bleeding during the second and third trimester
- Certain procedures used to treat abnormal conditions of the cervix (such as cervical conization)
- Lung disease during pregnancy
- Connective tissue disease
- Nutritional deficits
- Low body mass index
- Low socio-economic status
- Smoking during pregnancy
- Visual exam—the doctor may be able to see a trickle of fluid through the cervix, or a pool of fluid collected behind the cervix
- A nitrazine paper test—the doctor puts a small amount of fluid on a piece of paper to see if it is amniotic fluid
- Look at the fluid under a microscope to see if it is amniotic fluid
- Ultrasound—using sound waves, the doctor examines the baby and amniotic sac to see if there is plenty of fluid and the baby is doing well
34 weeks or longer of gestation
- Monitor the baby’s heart rate
- Induce labor by giving you medicines
- Possibly give antibiotics
32-33 weeks of gestation
- Induce labor if your baby’s lungs have matured enough
- Give antibiotics
- Possibly give steroids to help your baby's lungs develop faster
- Try to delay delivery until completion of 33 weeks gestation
24-31 weeks of gestation
Less than 24 weeks of gestation
American Pregnancy Association http://www.americanpregnancy.org
National Institute of Child Health and Development http://www.nichd.nih.gov
About Kids Health http://www.aboutkidshealth.ca
The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada http://www.sogc.org/index%5Fe.asp
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Premature Rupture of Membranes, Practice Bulletin No. 80. April 2007.
Cunningham FG, et al. Williams Obstetrics. 22nd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Division; 2005.
DynaMed editors. Preterm premature rupture of membranes at term. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php. Updated May 2010. Accessed June 1, 2010.
Eisenberg A, Murkoff HE, Hathaway SE. What to Expect When You’re Expecting. New York: Workman Publishing; 2002.
Ferris DG. Management of bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy. Am Fam Physician. 1998;57(6).
Jeffcoat MK, et al. Periodontal disease and premature birth: results of a pilot intervention. J Periodontology. 2003;74(8);1214.
Kohnle D. Placental abruption. EBSCO Health Library website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/healthLibrary. Updated May 2008. Accessed December 1, 2008.
Pregnancy Info.net. Premature rupture of membranes: causes, risks, and treatment. Pregnancy Info.net website. Available at: http://www.pregnancy-info.net/prom.html. Accessed June 1, 2010.
Premature Rupture of Membranes, Practice Bulletin No. 80, April 2007, The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.
- Reviewer: Andrea Chisholm
- Review Date: 10/2012
- Update Date: 05/11/2013