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- Chronic lung disease
- Conditions that affect the nervous system
- Weakened immune system
- Prolonged antibiotic use
- Repeated intubation
- Tube placed through a stoma (hole in the throat) rather than down through the nose or mouth
- Prolonged ventilation
- Continuous sedation
- Prolonged period of lying on back
- Older age
- Thick mucus, greenish mucus, or pus-like phlegm
- Bluish color of nails or lips
- Nausea or vomiting
- Shortness of breath
- IV antibiotics
- Oxygen therapy to increase the level of oxygen in your body
- Chest physical therapy to loosen and remove thick mucus from the lungs
- Elevate the head of your bed 30°-45°
- Wash their hands before and after touching you or the ventilator
- Clean the inside of your mouth on a regular basis
- Keep you on the ventilator only if it is necessary
- Avoid overly sedating you
- Regularly suction your airway
American Lung Association http://www.lung.org
American Thoracic Society http://www.thoracic.org
The Canadian Lung Association http://www.lung.ca
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
American Thoracic Society. Guidelines for the management of adults with hospital-acquired, ventilator-associated, and healthcare-associated pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;171(4):388-416.
Ventilator-associated pneumonia. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at:http://www.cdc.gov/HAI/vap/vap.html. Updated May 17, 2012. Accessed February 17, 2014.
Nosocomial pneumonia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated December 2, 2013. Accessed February 17, 2014.
Koenig SM, Truwit JD. Ventilator-associated pneumonia: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Clin Microbio Rev. 2006;19(4):637-657.
Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. FAQs about ventilator-associated pneumonia. Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America website. Available at: http://www.shea-online.org/Assets/files/patient%20guides/NNL%5FVAP.pdf. Accessed February 17, 2014.
- Reviewer: David L Horn, MD, FACP
- Review Date: 02/2014
- Update Date: 02/17/2014