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|The Male Reproductive System|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
- Family history of hypospadias
- Mother being older or having in vitro fertilization
- Environmental exposures or fetal growth problems during the pregnancy
- Opening of urethra is not at the tip (may be near the underside of the penis head or at the middle or base of the penis)
- Downward curvature of the penis
- Abnormal spray when urinating
- Foreskin that only covers part of the head of the penis
- Reconstruct the opening of the urethra
- Straighten the curved penis
American Academy of Pediatrics http://www.aap.org/
American Urological Association http://www.auanet.org/
Canadian Urological Association http://www.cua.org/
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/index-eng.php/
Academy of Pediatrics. Hypospadias: a birth defect in the penis. Academy of Pediatrics website. Available at: http://www.healthychildren.org/ . Accessed August 13, 2010.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), National Guideline Clearinghouse. Hypospadias: guidelines in pediatric urology. AHRQ National Guideline Clearinghouse website. Available at: http://www.guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=12594 . Published March 2008. Accessed August 13, 2010.
DynaMed Editorial Team. Hypospadias. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php . Updated June 2, 2010. Accessed August 19, 2010.
Mayo Clinic. Hypospadias. Mayo Clinic website. Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hypospadias/DS00884 . Updated January 22, 2009. Accessed August 13, 2010.
- Reviewer: Adrienne Carmack, MD
- Review Date: 12/2013
- Update Date: 01/13/2014