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Penetrating Brain Injury
(Brain Injury, Penetrating; Penetrating Wound to the Head; Wound to the Head, Penetrating)
|When a penetrating brain injury occurs, damage to the brain may occur in one area or a larger region.|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
- Fall, which could cause a piece of the skull to break off and penetrate the brain
- Motor vehicle accident
- Gunshot wound to the head
- Stab wound to the head
- Sports-related injury
- Abuse (being struck on the head with an object)
- Checking heart and lung function
- Checking the persons level of consciousness
- Checking reflexes, strength, and sensation
- Examining the entire body for other injuries
- Severity of the injury
- Areas of the brain that were damaged
- Remove skull fragments that broke off during the injury—A bullet or other object may also need to be removed.
- Remove part of the skull (decompressive craniectomy)—The brain often expands and swells after a severe injury. Removing a part of the skull gives the brain room to expand.
- Make burr holes in the scalp and skull to drain clotting blood from a hematoma
- Place a catheter into the brain to drain cerebrospinal fluid
- Pressure in the brain
- Temperature of the brain and the oxygen levels
- A physical therapist
- An occupational therapist
- A doctor who specializes in physical medicine and rehabilitation
- A neurologist
- A psychologist
Reduce the risk of gun accidents by:
- Keeping guns unloaded and in a locked cabinet or safe
- Storing ammunition in a separate location that is also locked
Reduce the risk of falls, especially if you are elderly, by:
- Using handrails when walking up and down stairs
- Using grab bars in the bathroom and placing non-slip mats in the bathroom
Reduce the risk of motor vehicle accidents by:
- Not drinking and driving or getting into a vehicle with someone who is under the influence of drugs or alcohol
- Obeying speed limits and other driving laws
- Using seatbelts and placing children in proper child safety seats
- Wearing a helmet when participating in certain sports and when riding on a motorcycle
- Avoiding taking medications that make you sleepy, especially when driving
American Academy of Neurology http://www.aan.com
Brain Injury Association of America http://www.biausa.org
The Brain Injury Association of Canada http://biac-aclc.ca
Ontario Brain Injury Association http://www.obia.on.ca
Barth J, Hillary F. Closed and penetrating head injuries. Saint Joseph’s University website. Available at: http://schatz.sju.edu/neuro/patho/pathophysiology.html. Accessed May 30, 2014.
Concussion and mild traumatic brain injury. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated May 22, 2014. Accessed May 30, 2014.
Cranial gunshot wound. New York Presbyterian Hospital website. Available at: http://nyp.org/health/cranial-gunshot-wounds.html. Accessed May 30, 2014.
Cranial gunshot wounds. University of California, Los Angeles Health System website. Available at: http://neurosurgery.ucla.edu/body.cfm?id=134. Accessed May 30, 2014.
Glasgow coma scale. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill website. Available at: http://www.unc.edu/~rowlett/units/scales/glasgow.htm. Updated May 30, 2014.
Gunshot wound head trauma. American Association of Neurological Surgeons website. Available at: http://www.aans.org/en/Patient%20Information/Conditions%20and%20Treatments/Gunshot%20Wound%20Head%20Trauma.aspx. Accessed May 30, 2014.
Moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated May 14, 2014. Accessed May 30, 2014.
Neff D. Closed head injury. EBSCO Health Library website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/healthLibrary. Updated May 12, 2014. Accessed May 30, 2014.
Traumatic brain injury. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury. Updated March 6, 2014. Accessed May 30, 2014.
- Reviewer: Rimas Lukas, MD
- Review Date: 05/2014
- Update Date: 00/53/2014