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(Dysphagia, Esophageal; Difficulty Swallowing [Esophagus])
|Esophagus and Stomach|
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- Achalasia —affects the muscles at the bottom of the esophagus
- Scleroderma —causes thickening and stiffening of tissues, joints, and organs; can lead to problems with the esophageal muscles
- Esophageal stricture or esophageal ring—causes the esophagus to become more narrow
- Esophageal tumors
- Infectious esophagitis
- Caustic esophagitis
- Foreign bodies
- Eosinophilic esophagitis
- Difficulty swallowing solids, liquids, or both
- A sensation of food being stuck in the esophagus
- Pain when swallowing
- Heartburn, regurgitation
- Coughing or choking when eating or drinking
- Wheezing, hoarse voice
- Weight loss, malnutrition, and dehydration due to problems with eating and drinking
- Swallowing test to observe what happens when you swallow
- Videofluorographic swallowing study (VFSS)
- Esophageal dilation —Placing a tube-shaped device into the esophagus to widen the narrow part.
- Dietary changes—You may need to avoid eating foods that cause problems, like meat. Or you may need to eat only pureed food. In severe cases, a feeding tube may be needed to provide nutrition.
- Therapy to improve swallowing—such as learning ways to prevent choking while eating.
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association http://www.asha.org
Dysphagia Research Society http://www.dysphagiaresearch.org
Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada http://www.heartandstroke.com
Ontario Association of Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologist https://www.osla.on.ca
Communication facts: special populations: dysphagia—2008 edition. American-Speech-Language-Hearing Association website. Available at: http://www.asha.org/Research/reports/dysphagia. Published 2008. Accessed August 13, 2013.
Dysphagia. Cedars-Sinai website. Available at: http://www.cedars-sinai.edu/Patients/Health-Conditions/Dysphagia.aspx. Accessed August 13, 2013.
Dysphagia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated August 2, 2013. Accessed August 13, 2013.
Dysphagia. World Gastroenterology Organisation website. Available at: http://www.worldgastroenterology.org/assets/downloads/en/pdf/guidelines/08%5Fdysphagia.pdf. Published 2007. Accessed August 13, 2013.
Font J, Underbrink M. Esophageal dysphagia. University of Texas Medical Branch website. Available at: http://www.utmb.edu/otoref/grnds/esoph-dysphagia-080206/esoph-dysphagia-slides-080206.pdf. Published February 6, 2008. Accessed August 14, 2013.
Palmer J, Drennan J, Baba M. Evaluation and treatment of swallowing impairments. Am Fam Physician. 2000 Apr 15;61(8):2453-62. Available at: http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000415/2453.html. Accessed August 14, 2013.
05/21/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Regan J, Murphy A, et al. Botulinum toxin for upper oesophageal sphincter dysfunction in neurological swallowing disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;5:CD009968.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 05/2014
- Update Date: 05/21/2014