Prenatal testing is a term that describes many tests that are done during pregnancy. The tests provide information about your health and the health of your developing baby. Prenatal testing includes blood and urine tests and ultrasounds. In some cases, more invasive procedures may be recommended. Invasive tests may include sampling placental tissue, drawing fluid from the amniotic sac, or drawing fetal blood from the umbilical cord.
Prenatal tests can be used to identify many different things, including:
- Treatable health problems in the mother that can affect the health of the fetus
- Characteristics of the fetus, including size, age, placement in the uterus, and sex
- Genetic, or chromosomal problems
In the mother, prenatal tests are used to identify things that could possibly affect the developing fetus, including:
- Antibodies that can cross the placenta and affect the health of the fetus
- Gestational diabetes
Immunity to certain diseases, such as
- Iron-deficiency anemia
- Sexually transmitted diseases
Prenatal tests can screen for many different congenital defects in the fetus, including:
Some birth defects can be diagnosed through prenatal testing. Some of these can be treated
(before birth) or immediately after birth, but the majority cannot. Prenatal testing can be quite complicated. However, prenatal tests do not test for everything, and no prenatal test guarantees the birth of a healthy baby.
Why is prenatal testing performed?What are the different types of prenatal tests?What questions should I ask my doctor about prenatal testing?Where can I get more information about prenatal testing?
American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Practice bulletin: invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy.
December 2007; No. 88.
American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Practice bulletin: screening for fetal chromosomal abnormalities.
January 2007; No. 77.
Bubb JA, Matthews AL. What’s new in prenatal screening and diagnosis?
Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice.
Overview: prenatal tests. American Pregnancy Association website. Available at:
http://americanpregnancy.org/prenatal-testing/. Accessed April 27, 2016.
Prenatal tests. Kids Health—Nemours Foundation website. Available at:
http://kidshealth.org/parent/system/medical/prenatal%5Ftests.html. Updated June 2013. Accessed April 27, 2016.