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Medications for Genital Herpes
Medications can help control genital herpes symptoms and prevent some future outbreaks. Medication to control symptoms once they occur is called episodic therapy. Medication to prevent future outbreaks is called suppressive therapy.
Herpes is still contagious even when suppressive medication is being taken. The virus can still be passed to others. Suppressive therapy may reduce your risk of infecting others, but it will not eliminate this risk entirely.
When you begin to experience early symptoms of a genital herpes outbreak, you can take medication to control the severity and the duration of the symptoms. You take the medication only when you are experiencing the symptoms. The disadvantage of episodic therapy is that it may not reduce the risk of spreading genital herpes to your partner. This is because some outbreaks may not trigger symptoms.
Suppressive therapy is used to prevent future outbreaks of genital herpes. This involves taking the medication every day to help suppress or prevent the outbreaks before they occur. You may want to take suppressive therapy if you tend to frequently have outbreaks. It can also be used for a sexual partner who has never had herpes and you are trying to reduce the risk of transmission to them. Keep in mind this only reduces the risk, it does not eliminate it.
Antiviral Medications for Episodic and Suppressive Therapy
Antiviral medications are commonly prescribed to treat genital herpes. Examples of these medications include:
- Acyclovir—may be given through an IV for severe infections. The medication is also available as a pill or a cream, but pills appear to be more effective than the cream.
- Oral famciclovir
- Oral valacyclovir
Possible side effects include:
- Nausea, vomiting
- Skin irritation—acyclovir
- Feeling tired or weak—famciclovir
- Stomach pain—famciclovir and valacyclovir
If you are pregnant or nursing, or have another condition such as HIV infection, talk to your doctor because your treatment regimen may be different.
Pain relievers can help ease your symptoms until the antiviral medication takes effect.
2015 Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/default.htm. Updated March 9, 2016. Accessed June 6, 2016.
Acyclovir. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T908696/Acyclovir. Updated September 27, 2016. Accessed October 6, 2016.
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Famciclovir. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T233466/Famciclovir. Updated September 27, 2016. Accessed October 6, 2016.
Genital herpes. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114875/Genital-herpes. Updated August 22, 2016. Accessed October 6, 2016.
Genital herpes—CDC fact sheet (detailed). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/std/herpes/stdfact-herpes-detailed.htm. Updated November 17, 2015. Accessed June 6, 2016.
Martens MG, Fife KH, Leone PA, Dix LP, Brennan CA. Once daily valacyclovir for reducing viral shedding in subjects newly diagnosed with genital herpes. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2009;2009:105376.
Valacyclovir. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T233474/Valacyclovir. Updated September 27, 2016. Accessed October 6, 2016.
- Reviewer: James Cornell, MD
- Review Date: 06/2016
- Update Date: 06/06/2016