Symptoms of Genital Herpes
Most people are unaware they have genital herpes because they do not have symptoms. Some people may have mild symptoms or mistake their symptoms for something else, such as
. Sexual contact with others can spread the infection even if symptoms are not present.
If recognizable symptoms do occur, they usually appear 4-7 week of exposure. There may be an early period of symptoms just before the the skin lesions appear, which may include:
- Local or regional pain
- Discomfort during urination
Flu-like symptoms may also occur including:
- Body aches
- Swollen lymph glands
Primary Outbreak and Recurrence
Genital herpes is marked the initial outbreaks, healing, and recurrences. Outbreaks may cause:
- Sores that start to form where the virus was contracted and entered the body
- Sores that begin as small red bumps
- Sores or blisters that appear and occur in clusters or small groupings
Blisters may become painful open sores. Outbreaks usually appear on or inside the genital and/or anal areas. Examples include the penis, vulva, cervix (the entrance to the uterus), rectum, or urethra (the tube that carries urine from the body). Lesions can also appear on the buttocks or upper thighs.
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The lesions usually heal without scarring within 2-6 weeks. At the end of the outbreak, a crust forms over the outer layer of the sore and the crust eventually falls off. This indicates a period of inactivity. Even though you don't have visible signs of genital herpes during inactive periods, it is important to know you can still transmit the virus to others.
Outbreaks may occur a number of times throughout the year, or may only occur once or twice in a lifetime. The frequency of outbreaks varies from person to person. The first year after the initial infection is usually the most severe and painful, with a second outbreak often happening only a few weeks later. As time goes on, recurrences tend to become milder and shorter in duration. Often, recurrences are signaled by symptoms where the virus first entered your body.
Infection with the HSV-2 virus is associated with more frequent recurrences than an infection with HSV-1 virus.
Untreated, genital herpes can cause complications such as:
- Lesions that appear on other parts of the body.
Psychological problems—Genital herpes can cause distress,
- Neonatal herpes—Pregnant women can transmit genital herpes to their newborns during childbirth.
- Urinary problems—The inside of the urethra may become affected, causing burning when passing urine. Lesions inside the urethra may cause difficulty with passing urine, or block urine flow completely.
- Proctitis—Lesions can spread to the rectum or begin there from anal intercourse. Proctitis causes pain, anal discharge, bleeding, and lower abdominal cramping.
Rare complications include:
Aseptic meningitis—infection of the cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord
Encephalitis—inflammation of the brain
2015 Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/default.htm. Updated March 9, 2016. Accessed June 6, 2016.
Beauman JG. Genital herpes: a review. Am Fam Physician. 2005;72(8):1527-1534.
Genital herpes. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:
https://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114875/Genital-herpes. Updated August 22, 2016. Accessed October 6, 2016.
Genital herpes—CDC fact sheet (detailed). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at:
http://www.cdc.gov/std/herpes/stdfact-herpes-detailed.htm. Updated November 17, 2015. Accessed June 6, 2016.