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Qureshi AA, Mo H, Packer L, et al. Isolation and identification of novel tocotrienols from rice bran with hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant, and antitumor properties. J Agric Food Chem . 2000;48:3130–3140.
Nesaretnam K, Guthrie N, Chambers AF, Carroll KK. Effect of tocotrienols on the growth of a human breast cancer cell line in culture. Lipids . 1995;30:1139–43.
Goh SH, Hew NF, Norhanom AW, Yadav M. Inhibition of tumour promotion by various palm-oil tocotrienols. Int J Cancer . 1994;57:529–31.
Yu W, Simmons-Menchaca M, Gapor A, et al. Induction of apoptosis in human breast cancer cells by tocopherols and tocotrienols. Nutr Cancer . 1999;33:26–32.
Mo H, Elson CE. Apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in human and murine tumor cells are initiated by isoprenoids. JNutr .1999;129:804–13.
Nesaretnam K, Stephen R, Dils R, Darbre P. Tocotrienols inhibit the growth of human breast cancer cells irrespective of estrogen receptor status. Lipids . 1998;33:461–9.
He L, Mo H, Hadisusilo S, et al. Isoprenoids suppress the growth of murine B16 melanomas in vitro and in vivo. JNutr . 1997;127:668–74.
Theriault A, Chao JT, Wang Q, et al. Tocotrienol: a review of its therapeutic potential. Clin Biochem . 1999;32:309–19.
Khor HT, Chieng DY, Ong KK. Tocotrienols inhibit liver HMG-CoA reductase activity in the guinea pig. NutrRes . 1995;15:537–544.
O'Byrne D, Traber MG, Packer L, et al. Supplementation with alpha-tocotrienyl acetate enhances LDL oxidative resistance without lowering serum cholesterol in hypercholestrolemic humans [abstract]. FASEB J . 1999;13:A536.
Parker RA, Pearce BC, Clark RW, et al. Tocotrienols regulate cholesterol production in mammalian cells by post-transcriptional suppression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. J Biol Chem . 1993;268:11230–11238.
Pearce BC, Parker RA, Deason ME, et al. Hypocholesterolemic activity of synthetic and natural tocotrienols. J Med Chem . 1992;35:3595–3606.
Qureshi AA, Bradlow BA, Brace L, et al. Response of hypercholesterolemic subjects to administration of tocotrienols. Lipids . 1995;30:1171–1177.
Qureshi AA, Bradlow BA, Salser WA, et al. Novel tocotrienols of rice bran modulate cardiovascular disease risk parameters of hypercholesterolemic humans. J Nutr Biochem . 1997;8:290–298.
Qureshi AA, Qureshi N, Hasler-Rapacz JO, et al. Dietary tocotrienols reduce concentrations of plasma cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, thromboxane B2, and platelet factor 4 in pigs with inherited hyperlipidemias. Am J ClinNutr . 1991;53(4 suppl):1042S–1046S.
Qureshi AA, Qureshi N, Wright JJ, et al. Lowering of serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic humans by tocotrienols (palmvitee). Am J Clin Nutr . 1991;53(4 suppl):1021S–1026S.
Qureshi AA, Sami SA, Salser WA, et al. Synergistic effect of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF 25) of rice bran and lovastatin on lipid parameters in hypercholesterolemic humans. J Nutr Biochem . 2001;12:318–329.
Szapary PO, Cirigliano MD. Tocotrienols in the management of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. AlternMed Alert . 2000;3:101–105.
Teoh MK, Chong JM, Mohamed J, et al. Protection by tocotrienols against hypercholesterolaemia and atheroma. Med J Malaysia . 1994;49:255–262.
Wan Nazaimoon WM, Sakinah O, Gapor A, et al. Effect of palm olein tocopherol and tocotrienol on lipid peroxidation, lipid profiles and glycemic control in non-insulin diabetes mellitus patients. Nutr Res . 1996;16:1901–1911.
Watkins T, Lenz P, Gapor A, et al. gamma-Tocotrienol as a hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant agent in rats fed atherogenic diets. Lipids . 1993;28:1113–1118.
Mustad VA, Smith CA, Ruey PP, et al. Supplementation with 3 compositionally different tocotrienol supplements does not improve cardiovascular disease risk factors in men and women with hypercholesterolemia. Am J Clin Nutr . 2002;76:1237–43.
Kerckhoffs DA, Brouns F, Hornstra G, Mensink RP. Effects on the human serum lipoprotein profile of beta-glucan, soy protein and isoflavones, plant sterols and stanols, garlic and tocotrienols. J Nutr . 2002;132:2494–505.
Mensink RP, van Houwelingen AC, Kromhout D, et al. A vitamin E concentrate rich in tocotrienols had no effect on serum lipids, lipoproteins, or platelet function in men with mildly elevated serum lipid concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr . 1999;69:213–219.
Ajuluchukwu JN, Okubadejo NU, Mabayoje M, et al. Comparative study of the effect of tocotrienols and -tocopherol on fasting serum lipid profiles in patients with mild hypercholesterolaemia: a preliminary report. Niger Postgrad Med J . 2007;14:30-3.
Chin SF, Hamid NA, Latiff AA, et al. Reduction of DNA damage in older healthy adults by Tri E® Tocotrienol supplementation. Nutrition. 2007 Sep 19. [Epub ahead of print]
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 12/2015
- Update Date: 12/15/2015