Otosclerosis is the growth of abnormal new bone in the inner ear bones needed for hearing. This growth prevents proper functioning of ear structures. Hearing loss can occur when the new bone changes the shape of the stapes and other ear small bones reducing their movement. This is a common cause of hearing loss.
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The cause of otosclerosis is still unknown, but genetics appears to play a role.
Otosclerosis is more common in Caucasians and females. It is most likely to happen in people in their teens through late 40s. Other factors that may increase chance of otosclerosis include:
- Family history of otosclerosis
- Viral infections, including measles
- Hormonal factors, such as pregnancy
- Drinking nonfluoridated water—some studies suggest that nonfluoridated water may cause a susceptible person to develop otosclerosis
Gradual hearing loss is the main symptom of otosclerosis. Hearing loss may be of 2 types:
- Conductive—involving the small bones of the inner ear
- Sensorineural—involving the cochlea, which is the sensory organ in the inner ear
Early in the disease, you may first notice trouble hearing low-pitched sounds or whispers. Other symptoms may include:
- A sensation of spinning—vertigo
- Balance problems
- A sensation of ringing, roaring, or buzzing in the ear—tinnitus
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Your ears may be tested. This can be done with a hearing test.
Images may be taken of your ear. This can be done with:
Treatments may include:
Hearing aids may be effective for conductive and sensorineural hearing loss.
In many cases, a procedure called a stapedectomy may improve hearing. The this operation is usually done with replacement of the diseased bone with an artificial device that can transmit sound waves to the inner ear. Stapedectomy is effective and frequently returns hearing to a near normal level.
Other surgical treatment may includestapedectomy, circumferential stapes mobilization surgery, or cochlear implantation.
Fluoride tablets are sometimes prescribed to stabilize the condition and prevent further sensorineural hearing loss. However, this treatment remains controversial and unproven.
Prevention methods include:
- Drinking fluoridated water
- Getting the measles vaccination
American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association
Canadian Society of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
The College of Family Physicians of Canada
Otosclerosis. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:
http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T113667/Otosclerosis. Updated November 18, 2016. Accessed August 22, 2017.
Otosclerosis. Massachusetts Eye and Ear website. Available at:
http://www.masseyeandear.org/for-patients/patient-guide/patient-education/diseases-and-conditions/otosclerosis. Accessed August 22, 2017.
Otosclerosis. National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) website. Available at:
http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/hearing/pages/otosclerosis.aspx. Updated March 6, 2017. Accessed August 22, 2017.
What you should know about otosclerosis. American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery website. Available at:
http://www.entnet.org/?q=node/1316. Accessed August 22, 2017.