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(Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathies; HMSNs)
- Type 1 (demyelinating)—This type affects the coating of the nerve called the myelin sheath, causing nerve impulses to travel more slowly. It usually occurs in childhood or the teen years. It is the most common type of CMT.
- Type 2 (axonal)—This type affects the part of the nerve called the axons. Although the speed is normal, the size or amount of impulses is less than normal. This type of CMT is less common and occurs after the teen years.
- Type 3—Also called Dejerine-Sottas disease, this is a rare, severe, early onset form of CMT. It is sometimes considered to be a subtype of CMT Type 1.
- Type 4 (demyelinating autosomal recessive)—This is similar to Type 1, but often less severe. It is less likely to be inherited by an affected individual's children.
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- Flexed toes
- Difficulty holding the foot up in a horizontal position
- Slapping the feet on the floor when walking
- Muscle cramping, weakness, and wasting in the lower extremities—can spread to the upper extremities later in life
- Decreased sensation in the feet and legs
- Problems with balance
- Type 3 symptoms:
- Delayed ability to walk due to weakness of the leg muscles closest to the trunk
- Severe sensory problems
- Hearing loss
- Physical and occupational therapy
- Moderate exercise
- Braces on the lower legs
- Shoe inserts to correct foot deformity
- Foot care and routine exams with a foot specialist
- Orthopedic surgery
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD, FAAP
- Review Date: 06/2016
- Update Date: 05/11/2013