"Milk"—Not Just From Cows
The next time you ask someone if they "got milk," the answer may surprise you. "Sure, we have soy, rice, almond, multigrain, oat, and potato. Would you like vanilla, carob, chocolate, strawberry, or plain?"
Milk sure has changed. And for many people, that change is welcome news. According to an article published in American Family Physician, up to 100% of Asians and American Indians, 80% of blacks and Latinos, and 15% of people of northern European descent have trouble digesting lactose.
Lactose, a milk sugar found in dairy products, is digested in the intestines by an enzyme called lactase. If someone does not produce enough lactase, the result is a decreased ability to digest lactose, or lactose intolerance, which can result in bloating, gas, diarrhea, and stomach cramps. There are different degrees of lactose intolerance—some people may be able to handle moderate amounts of milk before feeling the effects of too little lactase, while others may only be able to handle a very small amount, or none at all.
Saying No to Milk
Not everyone who shuns cow's milk is lactose intolerant. In its whole state, milk has both saturated
that some people try to avoid. Other people may be concerned about the environmental impact and animal abuse associated with milk production. While there are those that have religious convictions or other personal reasons for avoiding cow's milk.
Fortunately, nondairy milks are abundant and now found in many supermarkets. Not only can you buy milk made from
soybeans, rice, nuts, oats, potato, and combinations thereof, you also can pick your favorite flavor, fat content, and various levels of nutrient fortification. And with such a great selection, it is important to read the ingredient and nutrition information to help you select the best products for your needs.
Oh Boy, Soy!
Soy milk is the most common of the nondairy milk beverages. Each soy milk on the market has its own texture, taste, and consistency, and in general, is thicker and creamier than other nondairy milks.
Soybeans are the main ingredient in soy milk, followed by soy protein isolate—a concentrated soybean protein. Some soy milks contain tofu, but most soy milks are made from organic soybeans, although not all are free of genetically engineered beans. Soy milk is available in both liquid and powder forms.
Oatmeal in a Glass
Oat milk is made from oat kernels and filtered water. It may also include other grains, like barley or brown rice. The result is a neutral tasting, slightly sweet, highly stable beverage that is also an excellent substitute for cow's milk in cooking and baking. Oat milk contains
vitamin E and
and is low in fat and contains amino acids, vitamins, trace elements, and minerals. The extraction process allows much of the natural
to remain in the final product, which makes oat milk "oatmeal in a glass."
Rice, Nuts, Spuds, and Combos
Rice milk is lighter and sweeter than soy milk. Some people say it tastes closer to cow's milk than the other nondairy choices. Almond milk is the number one
milk, although people who make their own often use walnuts, hazelnuts, or cashews, along with almonds. Potato milk is the newest addition, and it is available in both liquid and powder form, although distribution is still limited. Combination beverages often contain oats, barley, soybeans, and brown rice.
Cow Versus Plant-Based Milk
Will you get enough calcium and other nutrients from nondairy milk? Yes, if you buy fortified products. The most common nutrients added to nondairy milks are the same ones either added to or found in cow's milk: calcium, riboflavin, and
, D, and B12. Buy brands that contain 20% to 30% of the US Recommended Daily Allowances (USRDA) for calcium, riboflavin, and vitamin B12, which makes them nutritionally similar to cow's milk. If for some reason you lack exposure to the sun, buy products fortified with
vitamin D. Not all nondairy beverages are fortified, so check the labels.
You can also get the calcium and nutrients you need from other food sources such as vegetables.
Cooking with Nondairy Milk
Nondairy milks are great in shakes and on cereal, but can you cook or bake with them?
Of course! The results will depend on the fat content, flavor, and consistency of the milk substitute you are using. Try different types of non-dairy milk and keep in mind that you may need to modify your recipe by adding or taking away other ingredients to get the same result.
Rice and nut milks are sweeter and lighter than soy milk, which makes them good for desserts and curries, but less suited for gravies and most entrees. Oat and potato milks are more neutral and complement soups and main dishes. Be aware that soy-based beverages or those containing a high amount of calcium carbonate can curdle at high temperatures, especially if the recipe uses acidic foods such as oranges or tomatoes.
Buying and Using Nondairy Beverages
Remember these guidelines when shopping for nondairy milk:
- Consider why you are buying the product: as a beverage, to use on cereal, or in recipes. You may need several types.
- Read the labels to make sure that is meets your nutrient needs.
- Most nondairy beverages come in packages which generally last 6 months or longer unopened. Once opened, they must be refrigerated and used within 7 to 10 days.
- Not all brands taste the same. Experiment until you find the one you like. Taste them heated and chilled to detect any differences in flavor.
- Powdered forms are usually less expensive and allow you to vary the consistency.
- Nondairy beverages are not suitable for infants. There are specially designed soy-based infant formulas available.
- More than 30 brands of nondairy beverages are on the market. You can even make some kinds of nondairy beverages at home.
- In addition to nut allergen with almond milk, watch out for potential hidden allergens, such as gluten, xanthan gum, or barley malt.
- Most brands have less sugar than cow's milk and are considered heart healthy because they contain no trans fat, saturated fat, or cholesterol.
Go Dairy Free
Vegetarian Resource Group
Dietitians of Canada
American Academy of Family Physicians. Lactose intolerance: what you should know. Am Fam Physician. 2006;74(11):1927-1928.
Dietary guidelines for Americans 2015-2020. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion website. Available at: https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines. Updated December 2015. Accessed July 10, 2017.
Genkinger JM, Hunter DJ, Spiegelman D, et al.
Dairy products and ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis of 12 coholrt studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15(2):364-372.
Goldberg JP, Folta SC, Must A. Milk: can a “good” food be so bad?
How to substitute dairy milk. Go Dairy Free website. Available at: http://www.godairyfree.org/dairy-substitutes/how-to-substitute-milk-skim-low-fat-whole. Updated July 2, 2012. Accessed July 10, 2017.
Lactose intolerance. National Institute of Diabetes, and Digestive, and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/lactose-intolerance. Updated June 2014. Accessed July 10, 2017.
Lactose intolerance in adults. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115565/Lactose-intolerance-in-adults. Updated November 17, 2016. Accessed July 10, 2017.