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Psychological Misdiagnosis of Gifted and Talented Children
Gifted and talented children face many challenges. One challenge is being correctly identified. The other is living in a world where their personal traits are often poorly understood. Such challenges put these children at risk for having certain difficulties at home and school. Being gifted may also be misdiagnosed or overlooked.
What It Means to Be Gifted or Talented
There is no universally-accepted definition of giftedness, although IQ testing has been among the most commonly used standardized tools to assess ability. Many experts feel that such tests may fail to recognize many truly gifted individuals.
According to the National Association for Gifted Children, gifted and talented children possess greater than average awareness, perception, and sensitivity. This may be expressed in one or more areas, such as art, music, language, science, or math. Some common traits of gifted and talented children include:
- Ability to reason well and learn quickly
- Strong imagination
- Good memory
- Larger than average vocabulary
- Deep absorption in activities that interest them
- Keen observation, perception, and insight
- Complex and abstract thinking
Difficulties Facing Gifted and Talented Children
Because of their finely tuned awareness, gifted and talented children tend to experience life differently and more intensely than others. Unfortunately, peers and authorities at school or home often do not understand these differences. Gifted and talented children may experience problems, such as:
- Boredom and impatience
- Frustration and disappointment when ideals are not reached
- Disregard for or open questioning of rules and traditions
- Preoccupation with deep human concerns, sometimes leading to anxiety and depression
- Difficulty observing boundaries and channeling their intense energy
- Feelings of not fitting in with their peers
The child's intense personal traits and difficulties may be viewed as symptoms of a mental or emotional disorder. Misguided therapy or medication may follow, as the doctor or therapist attempts to suppress or cure the symptoms of giftedness.
Gifted and talented children may be misdiagnosed with other conditions, such as:
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Traits such as intensity, impatience, sensitivity, and high energy are common in children with ADHD, as well as in gifted children. Some gifted children do have ADHD, but most do not. They are at a different developmental level than other children. As a result, they may be inattentive and impulsive in certain situations.
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Like children with oppositional defiant disorder, gifted children frequently appear strong-willed. However, such behavior may be due to their intensity, sensitivity, and idealism. They do not like to be criticized for their different way of thinking. They may question everything, including the rules and engage in power struggles with authority figures.
Depression and Bipolar Disorder
Gifted children may have intense mood swings. They notice inconsistencies in society and in the people around them. They can feel different and alienated from others. These traits are often found in children with depression, especially those with bipolar disorder. Symptoms like mood swings, irritability, and difficulties with temper control do not necessarily mean that a gifted child suffers from a mood disorder, but they should likely lead to consultation with an experienced child psychiatrist.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder or Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder
Gifted children like to organize things into complex structures. They tend to be perfectionists and idealists. They can get upset when others do not go along with their ideas, appearing intolerant and bossy. This behavior may be mistaken for obsessive-compulsive disorder or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.
Highly gifted children often have different ways of interacting socially. Their unusual comments and jokes may be misinterpreted as signs of Asperger syndrome. People with Asperger syndrome may be gifted—especially in certain specific skills—but they do not respond as well as normal children to ordinary social or emotional cues. They may not make friends readily and often prefer to keep to themselves.
Gifted children, on the other hand, often show a great deal of concern for others. If your gifted child gets along well with both adults and children, then a diagnosis of Asperger’s disorder is very unlikely.
If you are concerned that your child may be struggling with a mental health concern, make an appointment with a child psychologist who has experience working with gifted and talented children.
In some cases, gifted children may be diagnosed with another condition.
Like all children, gifted children can have hidden learning disabilities. They can be harder to recognize since they may be able to compensate for them. Such disabilities may include auditory processing weaknesses, difficulties with visual perception, writing disabilities, spatial disorientation, dyslexia, and attention deficits.
Gifted and talented children may develop a poor self-image when learning disabilities are present. They tend to dwell on the things they cannot do and may need help in developing a good self-concept. Gifted children with learning disabilities have a great deal of trouble getting needed help in their schools because their academic achievement is usually above grade level despite their disability. Most school systems require a history of academic failure before they will provide remedial services.
Nightmare disorder, sleep terror disorder, and sleepwalking disorder appear to be more common in gifted children. Some gifted children sleep a lot less than other children. Others sleep a lot more. In the presence of unusual sleep patterns, the doctor can help advise you whether a gifted child needs further evaluation for sleep or psychological problems.
Parents and family members may lack information about the traits of gifted children. Such children may appear to be willful, mischievous, or strange. They may be criticized or punished for behaviors that stem from curiosity, intensity, and sensitivity. Power struggles, temper tantrums, and other behavior problems may surface. Effective therapy should involve helping the family understand and cope with the child's intensity.
Gifted and talented children often must overcome many challenges to reach their potential. They frequently need help interacting in the mainstream world, finding supportive environments, and channeling their talents. When gifted and talented children are misdiagnosed and wrongly stigmatized, they cannot get the type of support they need. Families, educators, and doctors need to be better educated about the characteristics and social and emotional needs of gifted and talented children.
GT World for Gifted and Talented Individuals
National Association of Gifted Children
Gifted Children's Association of BC
Common characteristics of gifted individuals. National Association for Gifted Children website. Available at: http://www.nagc.org/resources-publications/resources/my-child-gifted/common-characteristics-gifted-individuals. Accessed January 15, 2016.
Exploring social and emotional aspects of giftedness in children. Supporting Emotional Needs of the Gifted website. Available at: https://sengifted.org/archives/articles/exploring-social-and-emotional-aspects-of-giftedness-in-children. Accessed January 15, 2016.
Gifted students. American Academy of Pediatrics Healthy Children website. Available at: https://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/teen/school/Pages/Gifted-Students.aspx. Updated November 21, 2015. Accessed January 15, 2016.
The gifted underachiever. American Academy of Pediatrics Healthy Children website. Available at: https://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/gradeschool/school/Pages/The-Gifted-Underachiever.aspx. Updated November 21, 2015. Accessed January 15, 2016.
Webb J, Amend E, Webb N, Goerss J, Beljan P, Olenchak R. Misdiagnosis and dual diagnosis of gifted children. Supporting Emotional Needs of the Gifted website. Available at: http://www.sengifted.org/archives/articles/misdiagnosis-and-dual-diagnosis-of-gifted-children. Accessed January 15, 2016.
What is giftedness? Gifted Development Center website. Available at: http://www.gifteddevelopment.com/about-our-center/what-is-giftedness. Accessed January 15, 2016.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 01/2016
- Update Date: 01/15/2016