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Health Check-Ups for Women
If you're a woman, chances are good that your car gets a tune-up more often than you do. While many doctors send friendly reminders when it is time for a periodic physical, some of us are on our own to remember when it is time for our next "30,000 mile" tune-up.
It pays to pay attention. All of the tests described below are proactive rather than reactive. Each is designed to catch a developing health problem in its early, more treatable stages. As such, timing is everything, so it is in every woman's best interest to become an informed healthcare consumer. Keep in mind that the timetable suggested for each test applies to healthy women. If you have specific medical concerns, follow the guidance of your doctor.
Guarding Against Cancer
A mammogram is a screening device that is used to identify a cancerous lump in its early stages. There is controversy about when women who are at low risk for developing breast cancer should start to have periodic mammograms, but many organizations suggest that screening or at least discussion about screening should start at age 40. The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), American Cancer Society, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists are some organizations that provide guidelines for breast cancer screening.
If you are interested in getting a mammogram, you should be able to find a certified facility through your doctor. Insurance usually covers the procedure. The National Cancer Institute's Cancer Information Service (1-800-422-6237) can also provide a list of certified facilities, answer related questions, and make referrals for free or low cost mammograms if you are uninsured or underinsured.
The risk of developing colon cancer increases with age, so it is important to learn the facts about this disease and tests that can help doctors detect it. It is one of the most common types of cancer in women. As is the case with any type of cancer, early detection is the key to survival.
Many organizations have different guidelines for colon cancer screening. In general, a person aged 50 years and older of average risk should do one of the following:
A Pap test is used to identify cervical cancer before symptoms become apparent. As part of the test, cells scraped from the cervix are smeared on a slide and examined under a microscope for any unusual looking cells. Suspect cells identified during this procedure indicate the need for further testing.
A sexually transmitted virus called the human papilloma virus (HPV) can cause changes in cervical cells. In some cases, these changes can lead to cancer. The HPV test , which can be used along with the Pap test, screens women for the HPV virus. The same cervical sample taken for the Pap test can be tested for HPV.
If you are a healthy woman, many professional health organizations offer these recommendations for screening:
- If you are aged 21-29 years—It is recommended that you have the Pap test every 3 years.
- If you are aged 30-65—It is recommended that you have the Pap test along with the HPV test every 5 years. Or, you can continue to have just the Pap test every 3 years.
- If you are aged 65 or older—You may be able to stop having Pap and HPV tests if you have had normal results
Note: You will need to have Pap tests done more often if you have abnormal results or certain conditions, such as:
Heart Disease Is a Women's Problem Too
It is actually the most potent health risk for both men and women in the United States. A lipid profile that includes a measurement of total cholesterol, HDL "good" cholesterol, LDL "bad" cholesterol, and triglycerides is an important part of your preventive healthcare. As with other conditions, organizations vary in their screening guidelines. The USPSTF recommends cholesterol testing in women aged 20 years and older if they are at increased risk of coronary heart disease. And since high blood pressure is a risk factor for heart disease, USPSTF also suggests that all women (starting at age 18) get their blood pressure checked as part of routine medical care.
Other Tests You May Need
Depending on your age and risk factors, your doctor may also screen you for:
- Osteoporosis —If you have reached your 65th birthday, the USPSTF recommends that you get screened for osteoporosis. Screening involves a bone mineral density test. This is a noninvasive way to measure bone mass. If you have risk factors for osteoporosis, screening should begin earlier.
- Type 2 diabetes —According to the USPSTF, you should be screened for diabetes if your blood pressure is above 135/80 mmHg. But, the American Diabetes Association recommends screening in all adults aged 45 years and older. If you are overweight or obese with other risk factors (like a family history of diabetes or high cholesterol), screening is done at any age.
- Sexually transmitted diseases —If you are aged 25 years or younger, the USPSTF recommends screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea. If you are at high risk because you have multiple partners, have a new partner, or are not using condoms, you should be screened at any age for chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV.
- Lung cancer—The American Lung Association and American Cancer Society both suggest that screening for lung cancer with a type of CT scan may be considered if you are a smoker or former smoker, aged 55-74 years, and have a history of heavy smoking (eg, one pack a day for 30 years).
You and your doctor can work together to create a screening schedule that is right for you.
Office on Women's Health
US Department of Health and Human Services
Women's Health Matters
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists practice bulletin number 131: Screening for cervical cancer. Obstet Gynecol. 2012;120(5):1222-38.
Can non-small cell lung cancer be found early? American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/Cancer/LungCancer-Non-SmallCell/DetailedGuide/non-small-cell-lung-cancer-detection. Updated March 4, 2015. Accessed January 27, 2016.
Cervical cancer screening. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated November 3, 2015. Accessed January 27, 2016.
Colorectal cancer screening. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated December 11, 2015. Accessed January 27, 2016.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 in adults. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated December 21, 2015. Accessed January 27, 2016.
Hypercholesterolemia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated December 16, 2015. Accessed January 27, 2016.
Hypertension. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated August 24, 2015. Accessed January 27, 2016.
Mammography for breast cancer screening. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated January 14, 2016. Accessed January 27, 2016.
Non-small cell lung cancer. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated January 25, 2016.
Osteoporosis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated October 13, 2015. Accessed January 27, 2016.
Screening for high blood pressure. US Preventive Services Task Force website. Available at: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf07/hbp/hbprs.htm. Updated July 2015. Accessed January 27, 2016.
Screening for lipid disorders in adults. US Preventive Services Task Force website. Available at: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspschol.htm. Updated July 2015. Accessed January 27, 2016.
Screening for osteoporisis. US Preventive Services Task Force website. Available at: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspsoste.htm. Updated July 2015. Accessed January 27, 2016.
Screening for type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults. US Preventive Services Task Force website. Available at: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspsdiab.htm. Updated July 2015. Accessed January 27, 2016.
USPSTF recommendations for STI screening. Am Fam Physician. 2008;77(6):819.
4/8/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance. http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Yee J, Kim DH, et al. Colorectal cancer screening. American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria. Available at: http://www.acr.org/~/media/ACR/Documents/AppCriteria/Diagnostic/ColorectalCancerScreening.pdf. Updated 2013. Accessed January 27, 2016
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 01/2016
- Update Date: 04/08/2014