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Diagnosis of Hodgkin Lymphoma
Diagnosis of Hodgkin Lymphoma
- Exisional—Most common. The entire lymph node is removed in an open procedure.
- Incisional—A small part of the node is removed during an open procedure.
- Fine needle aspiration—A thin needle is inserted into the lymph node. Lymph tissue and fluid removed with a syringe.
- Core needle—A larger, hollow needle is inserted into the lymph node. Lymph tissue and fluid are removed with a syringe.
Staging of Hodgkin Lymphoma
- Blood tests to look for abnormal numbers of certain blood cells, indications of cancer, and abnormal cells. The tests may also show changes in kidney or liver function. Inflammation can be measured with an erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) test.
- Imaging tests may be used to evaluate the extent of cancer and involved organs. Imaging tests may depend on suspected location of cancer based on symptomsb but may include:
- Biopsies of other tissues to confirm the presence of cancer in a specific location:
- Ultrasound of the heart—electrocardiogram
- Pulmonary function tests
- Rarely, a laparotomy to explore the abdominal cavity
Stage I—Cancer is INSIDE the lymphatic system in one the following places:
- One lymph node or more than one in the same lymph node cluster
- Lymphatic tissue in the throat (tonsils and/or adenoids)
- Stage IE—Cancer is OUTSIDE of the lymphatic system in ONE organ or area.
- Stage II—Cancer is in 2 or more lymph node clusters either above OR below the diaphragm.
- Stage IIE—Cancer is in one or more lymph node clusters either above OR below the diaphragm AND in a nearby organ or area.
- Stage III—Cancer is in lymph node clusters above AND below the diaphragm.
- Stage IIIE—Cancer is in lymph node clusters above AND below the diaphragm AND in a nearby organ or area.
- Stage IIIS—Cancer is in lymph node clusters above AND below the diaphragm AND in the spleen.
- Stage IIIE, S—Cancer is in lymph node clusters above AND below the diaphragm AND in a nearby organ or area AND in the spleen.
- Cancer is OUTSIDE of the lymph nodes, IN one or more organs AND lymph nodes near those organs OR
- Cancer is OUTSIDE of the lymph nodes in one organ AND has spread to areas far from the organ OR
- Cancer is found in the lungs, liver, bone marrow, or cerebrospinal fluid of the brain and spinal cord. The cancer is in these areas, but has not spread there from other nearby sites.
- Early favorable—stage I or II with no other factors
- Early unfavorable—stage I or II with factors that may include one or more factors, such as a tumor larger than 10 centimeters (cm), cancer in an organ, an ESR blood test that indicates inflammation, or symptoms like night sweats or fever
- Advanced favorable—stage III or IV with 3-4 factors:
- Aged 45 years and older
- Stage IV
- Blood tests that indicate abnormalities in blood cell counts
- Advanced unfavorable—stage III or IV with 4 or more of any factors listed above
- Reviewer: EBSCO Medical Review BoardMohei Abouzied, MD
- Review Date: 03/2017
- Update Date: 03/03/2016