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Conditions InDepth: Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is damage or disease of the arteries outside of the heart and brain. Blood delivers oxygen and nutrients to hardworking organs and tissues through all of the body's arteries. Injuries to the arteries can interrupt this blood flow, and impair delivery of nutrients and oxygen. Impaired blood flow can affect the health of tissue in the arms, legs, and body core. Severe interruptions in blood flow can cause functional problems, such as cramping or fatigue with minor activity.
Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of PAD. Atherosclerosis is the gradual build up of a plaque, on the walls of the blood vessels. This plaque is a waxy substance made of fats and other material in the blood that stick to the walls. It can also be made of scar tissue or fibers that were needed to repair damage to blood vessel walls. Overtime this plaque grows by trapping other substances in the blood. Substances in the blood like LDL "bad" cholesterol and glucose are more easily trapped in the formed plaque. As the plaque growth continues, the blood vessel opening will narrow making blood flow more difficult.
Factors that can damage blood vessels and contribute to atherosclerosis include:
- Smoking —chemicals from cigarette smoke can irritate blood vessel walls and make deposits in the walls of blood vessels
- High cholesterol —"bad" cholesterol can stick to and irritate the walls of the blood vessels
- High blood pressure —causes turbulent blood flow that can injure the walls of blood vessels
- Diabetes —excess glucose in the blood can contribute to plaque build up in blood vessels
- Radiation therapy
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About peripheral artery disease (PAD). American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/More/PeripheralArteryDisease/About-Peripheral-Artery-Disease-PAD%5FUCM%5F301301%5FArticle.jsp. Updated September 13, 2012. Accessed June 20, 2014.
Hills AJ, Shalhoub J, et al. Peripheral arterial disease. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2009;70(10):560-565.
Jurado JA, Bashir R, et al. Radiation-induced peripheral artery disease. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2008;72(4):563-568.
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) of lower extremities. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114200/Peripheral-arterial-disease-PAD-of-lower-extremities. Updated August 11, 2016. Accessed September 23, 2016.
What causes peripheral arterial disease? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/pad/causes.html. Updated June 2, 2014. Accessed June 20, 2014.
What is peripheral arterial disease? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/pad. Updated June 2, 2014. Accessed June 20, 2014.
- Reviewer: Michael J. Fucci, DO, FACC
- Review Date: 05/2015
- Update Date: 05/20/2015