Risk Factors for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
A risk factor is something that increases your likelihood of getting a disease or condition.
Not everyone who experiences a traumatic event will develop PTSD. Symptoms of PTSD are more likely to occur if a person has the following risk factors:
Previous Traumatic Experiences
People who have experienced a previous trauma, such as a rape, car accident, disaster, or act of violence, are more susceptible to
. The stress of the
can have a cumulative effect, and a new traumatic experience can exacerbate the negative effects of a previous trauma. This is especially true for those with early and longer-lasting childhood trauma.
History of Abuse
People with a history of physical, emotional, or sexual abuse tend to be more susceptible to PTSD. Such experiences contributed to previous trauma and their effects may be reinforced by any additional trauma.
Family History of PTSD or Depression
People with a family history of PTSD and/or
tend to be more susceptible to PTSD.
Family history of other mental health problems may also increase the risk.
History of Substance Abuse
People with a history of substance abuse tend to be more susceptible to PTSD. It may be that
alcohol use disorder
interfere with a person's ability to cope with the added stress of a traumatic event.
Poor Coping Skills
Coping skills and the level of psychological functioning can play a role in a person’s susceptibility to PTSD. People are more susceptible to PTSD if they have poor coping skills or lower levels of psychological functioning. They may have little sense of control over their circumstances or blame themselves for the trauma.
Lack of Social Support
Considerable research suggests that positive social and family relationships can help moderate the effects of stress and trauma. Conversely, people who lack
and environments tend to be more vulnerable to stress and therefore more at risk for PTSD after experiencing trauma.
A social environment that produces shame, guilt, stigmatization, or self-hatred also increase the risk.
The effects of extreme or ongoing stress on a person can result in extensive physical and psychological problems. This can reduce the ability to cope with trauma, therefore increasing the risk of PTSD.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5).
American Psychiatric Association; 2013.
PTSD basics. National Center for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
website. Available at:
http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/PTSD-overview/basics/index.asp. Accessed December 20, 2014.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114915/Posttraumatic-stress-disorder-PTSD. Updated August 19, 2016. Accessed October 4, 2016.
Stern, TA et al.
Massachusetts General Hospital Comprehensive Clinical Psychiatry. 1st ed. Philadelphia: Mosby Elsevier, 2008.