Risk Factors for Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD)
A risk factor is something that increases your likelihood of getting a disease or condition.
It is possible to develop TMD with or without the risk factors listed below. However, the more risk factors you have, the greater your likelihood of developing TMD. If you have a number of risk factors, ask your doctor what you can do to reduce your risk.
Risk factors for TMD include:
Some of the stress-related habits that may increase your risk of TMD include:
- Habitually clenching and unclenching your jaw
- Biting your lip
- Grinding your teeth during the day and/or at night in your sleep
- Constantly or very regularly chewing things, such as gum or ice, for long periods of time
The following medical conditions may increase your risk of TMD:
- Misaligned teeth or misaligned bite
- Jaw or facial deformities
Arthritic conditions, such as:
- Synovitis, an inflammation of the membrane that lines the temporomandibular joint
- History of jaw or facial injuries
such as fractures or dislocations of the jaw
- Muscle pain or spasm
of the chewing muscles
- Psychological illness
Most people report TMD symptoms between the ages of 30 and 50.
TMD is more common in women than in men.
Poorly fitted dentures are thought to be a risk factor for TMD.
Temporomandibular disorders. American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons website. Available at:
http://www.aaoms.org/images/uploads/pdfs/tmj%5Fdisorders.pdf. Published 2013. Accessed February 22, 2017.
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:
http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114703/Temporomandibular-joint-TMJ-dysfunction. Updated May 11, 2015. Accessed February 22, 2017.
TMJ. American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
website. Available at:
Updated December 2010. Accessed February 22, 2017.
TMJ. Mouth Healthy—American Dental Association website. Available at:
http://www.mouthhealthy.org/en/az-topics/t/tmj. Accessed February 22, 2017.
TMJ (temporomandibular joint and muscle disorders). National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research website. Available at:
https://www.nidcr.nih.gov/oralhealth/Topics/TMJ/TMJDisorders.htm. Updated April 2015. Accessed February 22, 2017.