(Undulant Fever; Bang’s Disease; Malta Fever)
Brucellosis is a rare bacterial infection that causes fevers that come and go.
Brucellosis is caused by specific bacteria that infect domesticated animals. It can be spread to humans through:
- Drinking unpasteurized milk
from infected cows, sheep, or goats
- Eating dairy foods from infected cows, sheep, or goats
- Inhaling the bacteria
- Breastfeeding—passed from an infected mother to an infant
- Sexual transmission
- Blood transplant from an infected donor
- Tissue transplant
Factors that increase your risk of getting brucellosis include:
- Working with domesticated animals and livestock, especially sheep, goats, cattle, deer, elk, and pigs, or their waste products, bodily fluids, or carcasses
- Eating unpasteurized dairy products
Eating undercooked meat products
Living in or travel to high-risk areas
Symptoms of brucellosis usually appear within 2 weeks of infection. Symptoms can appear from 5 days to several months after infection.
In the early stage, symptoms may include:
- Muscle pain
- Severe headache and backache
Nausea, vomiting, and
- Abdominal fullness or discomfort
- Joint pain
As it progresses, brucellosis causes a
fever (104° F to 105° F). This fever occurs in the evening along with severe sweating. It becomes normal or near normal in the morning, and usually begins again at night.
This on and off fever usually lasts 1 to 5 weeks. After 5 weeks, symptoms usually improve or disappear for 2 days to 2 weeks. Then, the fever returns. In some people, this fever returns only once. In others, the disease becomes chronic, and the fever returns, lessens, and then returns again over months or years.
In later stages, brucellosis can cause:
- Loss of appetite
- Weight loss
- Abdominal pain
- Joint pain
Patients usually recover within 2 to 5 weeks. Rarely, complications can develop. These may include:
- Abscesses within the liver or spleen
- Enlargement of the liver, spleen, or lymph nodes
Inflammation and infection of organs in the body, such as:
- Scrotal swelling
Brucellosis is also believed to cause a high rate of
during early pregnancy in infected women.
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Your body fluids may need to be tested. This can be done with:
- Blood tests
- Urine tests
- Bone marrow tests
- Spinal fluid tests
- Tissue tests
Pictures may be needed of your body structures. This can be done with:
Many people recover from brucellosis on their own. However, early diagnosis and treatment can reduce the risk of complications and infection. Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include:
Your doctor may prescribe one or more antibiotics to control and prevent brucellosis. Antibiotics are given for up to 6 weeks.
Surgery may be needed in people with abscesses or an infection that does not respond to antibiotics.
To help reduce your chances of getting brucellosis:
- Avoid eating or drinking unpasteurized milk and dairy foods. If you are unsure if a dairy product is pasteurized, don’t consume it.
- Wear rubber gloves and goggles, and securely cover open wounds when handling domesticated animals, including their fluids, waste products, or carcasses.
- Wear a protective mask when dealing with brucellosis cultures in a laboratory.
- Have cattle and bison that live in areas heavily infected with brucellosis vaccinated by an accredited veterinarian or government health official. The vaccine contains a live virus and is dangerous to humans. For best results, calves should be vaccinated when they are 4-6 months old. At this time, there is no brucellosis vaccine for humans.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Department of Agriculture
Public Health Agency of Canada
Brucellosis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at:
http://www.cdc.gov/brucellosis. Updated November 12, 2012. Accessed May 31, 2016.
Brucellosis. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:
http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115233/Brucellosis. Updated April 20, 2016. Accessed May 31, 2016.
Patel PJ, Kolawole TM, Sharma N, a-Faqih S. Sonographic findings in scrotal brucellosis.
J Clin Ultrasound. 1988;16(7):483-486.