Return to Index
Prevención del Cáncer (Reduciendo el Riesgo)
Tratamientos Principales Propuestos
Otros Tratamientos Propuestos
- Alga Verde Azul
- Bioflavonoides Cítricos
- Ácido Linoléico Conjugado
- Ácido Elágico
- Aceite de Pescado
- Linaza (Lignanos)
- Uvas (Resveratrol)
- Polen de Pasto
- Carbinol Indole 3 (13C)
- Hexafosfato de Inositol (Ácido Fítico, IP6)
- Cardo Lechoso
- MSM (Metil Sulfonil Metano)
- Cisteína N-Acetil (NAC)
- OPC (Proantocianidinas Oligoméricas)
- Corteza del Árbol de Papaya
- Vitamina D
Probablemente No Sea Efectivo
Principales Tratamientos Naturales Propuestos
Otros Tratamientos Naturales Propuestos
Longo D. Approach to the patient with cancer. In: Fauci AS, Wilson JD, Martin JB, et al, eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine . 14th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 1998.
Xu X, Duncan AM, Merz BE, et al. Effects of soy isoflavones on estrogen and phytoestrogen metabolism in premenopausal women. Cancer Epideimiol Biomarkers Prev. 1998;7:1101-1108.
Persky VW, et al. Effect of soy protein on endogenous hormones in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;75:145-153.
Chatenoud L, La Vecchia C, Franceschi S, et al. Refined-cereal intake and risk of selected cancers in Italy. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70:1107 - 1110.
Osborne M, Boyle P, Lipkin M. Cancer prevention. Lancet. 1997;349(suppl 2):27 - 30.
Smith-Warner SA, Spiegelman D, Yaun SS, et al. Intake of fruits and vegetables and risk of breast cancer: a pooled analysis of cohort studies. JAMA . 2001;285:769 - 776.
Terry P, Wolk A, Persson I, et al. Brassica vegetables and breast cancer risk [letter]. JAMA . 2001;286:2975 - 2977.
Smith-Warner SA, Willett WC, Spiegelman D, et al. Brassica vegetables and breast cancer risk [letter]. JAMA . 2001;285:2977.
Heinonen OP, Albanes D, Virtamo J, et al. Prostate cancer and supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene: incidence and mortality in a controlled trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1998;90:440 - 446.
Helzlsouer KJ, Huang HY, Alberg AJ, et al. Association between alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, selenium, and subsequent prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst . 2000;92:2018 - 2023.
Zheng W, Sellers TA, Doyle TJ, et al. Retinol, antioxidant vitamins, and cancers of the upper digestive tract in a prospective cohort study of postmenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol. 1995;142:955 - 959.
Esteve J, Riboli E, Pequignot G, et al. Diet and cancers of the larynx and hypopharynx: the IARC multi-center study in southwestern Europe. Cancer Causes Control. 1996;7:240 - 252.
Albanes D, Heinonen OP, Huttunen JK, et al. Effects of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplements on cancer incidence in the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;62(suppl):1427S - 1430S.
Chen J, Geissler C, Parpia B, et al. Antioxidant status and cancer mortality in China. Int J Epidemiol. 1992;21:625 - 635.
Maskarinec G, Williams AE, Inouye JS, et al. A randomized isoflavone intervention among premenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002;115:195-201.
White E, Shannon JS, Patterson RE. Relationship between vitamin and calcium supplement use and colon cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1997;6:769 - 774.
Macready N. Vitamins associated with lower colon-cancer risk. Lancet. 1997;350:1452.
Losonczy KG, Harris TB, Havlik RJ. Vitamin E and vitamin C supplement use and risk of all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality in older persons: the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;64:190 - 196.
Bostick RM, Potter JD, McKenzie DR, et al. Reduced risk of colon cancer with high intake of vitamin E: the Iowa Women's Health Study. Cancer Res. 1993;53:4230 - 4237.
Giovannucci E, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, et al. Multivitamin use, folate, and colon cancer in women in the Nurses' Health Study. Ann Intern Med. 1998;129:517 - 524.
Malila N, Virtamo J, Virtanen M, et al. The effect of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplementation on colorectal adenomas in middle-aged male smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1999;8:489 - 493.
Lu LJW, Anderson KE, Grady JJ, et al. Effects of soya consumption for one month on steroid hormones in premenopausal women: implications for breast cancer risk reduction. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1996;5:63-70.
Greenberg ER, Baron JA, Tosteson TD, et al. A clinical trial of antioxidant vitamins to prevent colorectal adenoma. N Engl J Med . 1994;331:141 - 147.
Woodson K, Tangrea JA, Barrett MJ, et al. Serum alpha-tocopherol and subsequent risk of lung cancer among male smokers. J Natl Cancer Inst . 1999;91:1738 - 1743.
National Research Council Staff. Diet and Health: Implications for Reducing Chronic Disease Risk . Washington, DC: National Academy of Education; 1989:376 - 379.
Clark LC, Combs GF Jr, Turnbull BW, et al. Effects of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the skin:a randomized controlled trial. Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Study. JAMA. 1996;276:1957 - 1963.
Fleischauer AT, Poole C, Arab L. Garlic consumption and cancer prevention: meta-analyses of colorectal and stomach cancers. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72:1047 - 1052.
Agarwal KC. Therapeutic actions of garlic constituents. Med Res Rev. 1996;16:111 - 124.
Dausch JG, Nixon DW. Garlic: a review of its relationship to malignant disease. Prev Med. 1990;19:346 - 361.
Dorant E, van den Brandt PA, Goldbohm RA, et al. Garlic and its significance for the prevention of cancer in humans: a critical view. Br J Cancer. 1993;67:424 - 429.
Lau BH, Tadi PP, Tosk JM. Allium sativum (garlic) and cancer prevention. Nutr Res. 1990;10:937 - 948.
Steinmetz KA, Kushi LH, Bostick RM, et al. Vegetables, fruit, and colon cancer in the Iowa Women's Health Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1994;139:1 - 15.
You WC, Blot WJ, Chang YS, et al. Allium vegetables and reduced risk of stomach cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1989;81:162 - 164.
Ernst E. Can Allium vegetables prevent cancer? Phytomedicine. 1997;4:79 - 83.
Kumar NB, Cantor A, Allen K, et al. The specific role of isoflavones on estrogen metabolism in premenopausal women. Cancer. 2002;94:1166-1174.
Sumiyoshi H. New pharmacological activities of garlic and its constituents [in Japanese; English abstract]. Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi . 1997;110(suppl 1):93P - 97P.
Michaud DS, Pietinen P, Taylor PR, et al. Intakes of fruits and vegetables, carotenoids and vitamins A, E, C in relation to the risk of bladder cancer in the ATBC cohort study. Br J Cancer. 2002;87:960-965.
Popov I, Blumstein A, Lewin G. Antioxidant effects of aqueous garlic extract: 1st communication: direct detection using the photochemiluminescence. Arzneimittelforschung. 1994;44:602 - 604.
Torok B, Belagyi J, Rietz B, et al. Effectiveness of garlic on the radical activity in radical generating systems. Arzneimittelforschung. 1994;44:608 - 611.
Das T, Roychoudhury A, Sharma A, et al. Modification of clastogenicity of three known clastogens by garlic extract in mice in vivo. Environ Mol Mutagen . 1993;21:383 - 388.
Ip C, Lisk DJ. Efficacy of cancer prevention by high-selenium garlic is primarily dependent on the action of selenium. Carcinogenesis. 1995;16:2649 - 2652.
Malila N, Taylor PR, Virtanen MJ, et al. Effects of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplementation on gastric cancer incidence in male smokers (ATBC Study, Finland). Cancer Causes Control. 2002;13:617-623.
Virtamo J, Edwards BK, Virtanen M, et al. Effects of supplemental alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene on urinary tracct cancer: incidence and mortality in a controlled trial (Finland). Cancer Causes Control. 2000;11:933-939.
Heart Protection Study Collaborative Group. MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of antioxidant vitamin supplementation in 20,536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2002;360:23-33.
Reid ME, Duffield-Lillico AJ, Garland L, et al. Selenium supplementation and lung cancer incidence: an update of the nutritional prevention of cancer trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002;11:1285-1291.
Steinmetz KA, Potter JD. Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a review. J Am Diet Assoc . 1996;96:1027 - 1039.
Ziegler RG. A review of epidemiologic evidence that carotenoids reduce the risk of cancer. J Nutr . 1989;119:116 - 122.
Flagg EW, Coates RJ, Greenberg RS. Epidemiologic studies of antioxidants and cancer in humans. J Am Coll Nutr . 1995;14:419 - 427.
Vena JE, Graham S, Freudenheim J, et al. Diet in the epidemiology of bladder cancer in western New York . Nutr Cancer . 1992;18:255 - 264.
Rock CL, Saxe GA, Ruffin MT IV, et al. Carotenoids, vitamin A, and estrogen receptor status in breast cancer. Nutr Cancer . 1996;25:281 - 296.
Allred CD, Allred KF, Ju YH, et al. Soy diets containing varying amounts of genistein stimulate growth of estrogen-dependent (MCF-7) tumors in a dose-dependent manner. Cancer Res. 2001;61:5045-5050.
Ju YH, Allred CD, Allred KF, et al. Physiological concentrations of dietary genistein dose-dependently stimulate growth of estrogen-dependent human breast cancer (MCF-7) tumors implanted in athymic nude mice. J Nutr. 2001;131:2957-2962.
Santamaria L, Bianchi-Santamaria A. Carotenoids in cancer chemoprevention and therapeutic interventions. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1992;Spec No:321 - 326.
Allred CD, Ju YH, Allred KF, et al. Dietary genistin stimulates growth of estrogen-dependent breast cancer tumors similar to that observed with genistein. Carcinogenesis. 2001;22:1667-1673.
Omenn GS, Goodman GE, Thornquist MD, et al. Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med . 1996;334:1150 - 1155.
Hargreaves DF, Potten CS, Harding C, et al. Two-week dietary soy supplementation has an estrogenic effect on normal premenopausal breast. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. . 1999;84:4017-4024.
Frieling UM, Schaumberg DA, Kupper TS, et al. A randomized, 12-year primary-prevention trial of beta carotene supplementation for nonmelanoma skin cancer in the physicians' health study. Arch Dermatol. 2000;136:179 - 184.
Lee IM, Cook NR, Manson JE, et al. Beta-carotene supplementation and incidence of cancer and cardiovascular disease: the Women's Health Study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999;91:2102 - 2106.
Michaud DS, Feskanich D, Rimm EB, et al. Intake of specific carotenoids and risk of lung cancer in 2 prospective US cohorts. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72:990 - 997.
White WS, Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis M, Erdman JW Jr, et al. Pharmacokinetics of beta-carotene and canthaxanthin after ingestion of individual and combined doses by human subjects. J Am Coll Nutr . 1994;13:665 - 671.
Franceschi S, Bidoli E, La Vecchia C, et al. Tomatoes and risk of digestive-tract cancers. Int J Cancer . 1994;59:181 - 184.
Giovannucci E, Ascherio A, Rimm EB, et al. Intake of carotenoids and retinol in relation to risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995;87:1767 - 1776.
Clinton SK, Emenshiser C, Schwartz SJ, et al. cis-trans Lycopene isomers, carotenoids, and retinol in the human prostate. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev . 1996;5:823 - 833.
Gann PH, Ma J, Giovannucci E, et al. Lower prostate cancer risk in men with elevated plasma lycopene levels: results of a prospective study. Cancer Res. 1999;59:1225 - 1230.
Gionvannucci E. Tomatoes, tomato-based products, lycopene, and cancer: review of the epidemiological literature. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999;91:317 - 331.
Messina M, Gardner C, Barnes S. Gaining insight into the health effects of soy but a long way still to go: commentary on the fourth International Symposium on the Role of Soy in Preventing and Treating Chronic Disease. J Nutr. 2002;132:547S-551S.
Cohen M, Bhagavan HN. Ascorbic acid and gastrointestinal cancer. J Am Coll Nutr . 1995;14:565 - 578.
Ocke MC, Kromhout D, Menotti A, et al. Average intake of anti-oxidant (pro) vitamins and subsequent cancer mortality in the 16 cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. Int J Cancer . 1995;61:480 - 484.
Kromhout D, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB. Antioxidant vitamins and stomach cancer: the role of ecologic studies. Cancer Lett . 1997;114:333 - 334.
Shibata A, Paganini-Hill A, Ross RK, et al. Intake of vegetables, fruits, beta-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin supplements and cancer incidence among the elderly: a prospective study. Br J Cancer . 1992;66:673 - 679.
Manthey JA, Grohmann K, Guthrie N. Biological properties of citrus flavonoids pertaining to cancer and inflammation. Curr Med Chem. . 2001;8:135-153.
Truswell AS. Meat consumption and colorectal cancer: critique of Norat and Riboli's review. Nutr Rev. 2001;59:375-377.
Duncan AM, Underhill KEW, Xu X, et al. Modest hormonal effects of soy isoflavones in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. . 1999;84:3479-3484.
Block G. Epidemiologic evidence regarding vitamin C and cancer. Am J Clin Nutr . 1991;54(suppl 6):1310S - 1314S.
Khaw KT, Bingham S, Welch A, et al. Relation between plasma ascorbic acid and mortality in men and women in EPIC-Norfolk prospective study: a prospective population study. Lancet . 2001;357:657 - 663.
Daviglus ML, Dyer AR, Persky V, et al. Dietary beta-carotene, vitamin C, and risk of prostate cancer: Results from the Western Electric Study. Epidemiology . 1996;7:472 - 477.
Bruemmer B, White E, Vaughan TL, et al. Nutrient intake in relation to bladder cancer among middle-aged men and women. Am J Epidemiol . 1996;144:485 - 495.
O'Toole P, Lombard M. Vitamin C and gastric cancer: supplements for some or fruit for all. Gut . 1996;39:345 - 347.
Rapola JM, Virtamo J, Haukka JK, et al. Effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of angina pectoris. JAMA. . 1996;275:693-698.
Kushi LH, Fee RM, Sellers TA, et al. Intake of vitamins A, C, and E and postmenopausal breast cancer: the Iowa Women's Health Study. Am J Epidemiol . 1996;144:165 - 174.
Hunter DJ, Manson JE, Colditz GA, et al. A prospective study of the intake of vitamins C, E, and A and the risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med . 1993;329:234 - 240.
Katiyar SK, Mukhtar H. Tea antioxidants in cancer chemoprevention. J Cell Biochem Suppl . 1997;27:59 - 67.
Stoner GD, Mukhtar H. Polyphenols as cancer chemopreventive agents. J Cell BiochemSuppl . 1995;22:169 - 180.
Wang ZY, Huang MT, Lou YR, et al. Inhibitory effects of black tea, green tea, decaffeinated black tea, and decaffeinated green tea on ultraviolet B light-induced skin carcinogenesis in 7,12-dimethylbenz[ a ]anthracene-initiated SKH-1 mice. Cancer Res . 1994;54:3428 - 3435.
McCord H. More good news in tea leaves. Prevention . 1995;47:51.
Yang CS, Wang ZY. Tea and cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst . 1993;85:1038 - 1049.
Imai K, Suga K, Nakachi K, et al. Cancer-preventive effects of drinking green tea among a Japanese population. Prev Med. 1997;26:769 - 775.
Ji BT, Chow WH, Hsing AW, et al. Green tea consumption and the risk of pancreatic and colorectal cancers. Int J Cancer . 1997;70:255 - 258.
Yu GP, Hsieh CC, Wang LY, et al. Green-tea consumption and risk of stomach cancer: a population-based case-control study in Shanghai, China. Cancer Causes Control . 1995;6:532 - 538.
Tsubono Y, Nishino Y, Komatsu S, et al. Green tea and the risk of gastric cancer in Japan. N Engl J Med . 2001;344:632 - 666.
Galanis DJ, Kolonel LN, Lee J, et al. Intakes of selected foods and beverages and the incidence of gastric cancer among the Japanese residents of Hawaii: a prospective study. Int J Epidemiol . 1998;27:173 - 180.
Omenn GS. Micronutirents (viamins and minerals) as cancer-preventive agents. IARC Sci Publ. . 1996;139:33-45.
Katiyar SK, Ahmad N, Mukhtar H. Green tea and skin. Arch Dermatol. 2000;136:989 - 994.
Komori A, Yatsunami J, Okabe S, et al. Anticarcinogenic activity of green tea polyphenols. Jpn J Clin Oncol . 1993;23:186 - 190.
Cao Y, Cao R. Angiogenesis inhibited by drinking tea [letter]. Nature. 1999;398:381.
Messina MJ, Persky V, Setchell KD, et al. Soy intake and cancer risks: a review of the in vitro and in vivo data. Nutr Cancer . 1994;21:113 - 131.
Adlercreutz H, Mazur W. Phyto-oestrogens and western diseases. Ann Med. 1997;29:95 - 120.
Stoll BA. Eating to beat breast cancer: potential role for soy supplements. Ann Oncol . 1997;8:223 - 225.
Day NE. Phyto-estrogens and hormonally dependent cancers. Pathol Biol . 1994;42:1090.
Barnes S, Peterson TG, Coward L. Rationale for the use of genistein-containing soy matrices in chemoprevention trials for breast and prostate cancer. J Cell Biochem Suppl. 1995;22:181 - 187.
Ingram D, Sanders K, Kolybaba M, et al. Case-control study of phyto-oestrogens and breast cancer. Lancet. 1997;350:990 - 994.
Goodman MT, Wilkins LR, Hankin JH, et al. Association of soy and fiber consumption with the risk of endometrial cancer. Am J Epidemiol . 1997;146:294 - 306.
New Research Shows Combination of Tomato Phytonutrients Effectively Combats Breast Cancer (February 2000). Press Release from LycoRed Natural Products Industries Ltd., P.O.B. 320, Beer-Sheva 84102, Israel.
Day NE. Phyto-estrogens and hormonally dependent cancers. Pathol Biol . 1994;42:1090.
Castellsague X, Munoz N, De Stefani E, et al. Influence of maté drinking, hot beverages and diet on esophageal cancer risk in South America. Int J Cancer. 2000;88:658-664.
Butterworth CE Jr. Effect of folate on cervical cancer: Synergism among risk factors. Ann N Y Acad Sci . 1992;669:293 - 299.
Kim YI, Mason JB. Folate, epithelial dysplasia, and colon cancer. Proc Assoc Am Physicians . 1995;107:218 - 227.
Tseng M, Murray SC, Kupper LL, et al. Micronutrients and the risk of colorectal adenomas. Am J Epidemiol . 1996;144:1005 - 1014.
Heimburger DC. Localized deficiencies of folic acid in aerodigestive tissues. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1992;669:87 - 96.
Zhang S, Hunter DJ, Hankinson SE, et al. A prospective study of folate intake and the risk of breast cancer. JAMA. 1999;281:1632 - 1637.
Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ, Pietinen P, Barrett MJ, et al. Dietary and other methyl-group availability factors and pancreatic cancer risk in a cohort of male smokers. Am J Epidemiol . 2001;153:680 - 687.
Cramer DW, Kuper H, Harlow BL, et al. Carotenoids, antioxidants and ovarian cancer risk in pre- and postmenopausal women. Int J Cancer. 2001;94:128-134.
Giovannucci E, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, et al. Folate, methionine, and alcohol intake and risk of colorectal adenoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1993;85:875 - 884.
Schatzkin A. Trials on dietary prevention of cancer: polyps and vegetables. Presented at: European Conference on Nutrition & Cancer; June 21-24, 2001; Lyon, France.
Baron JA, Sandler RS, Haile RW, et al. Folate intake, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and risk of colorectal adenomas. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1998;90:57 - 62.
Kearney J, Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, et al. Calcium, vitamin D, and dairy foods and the occurrence of colon cancer in men. Am J Epidemiol . 1996;143:907 - 917.
Baron JA, Beach M, Mandel JS, et al. Calcium supplements for the prevention of colorectal adenomas. N Engl J Med . 1999;340:101 - 107.
Hyman J, Baron JA, Dain BJ, et al. Dietary and supplemental calcium and the recurrence of colorectal adenomas. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev . 1998;7:291 - 295.
Lipkin M, Newmark H. Effect of added dietary calcium on colonic epithelial-cell proliferation in subjects at high risk for familial colonic cancer. N Engl J Med. 1985;313:1381 - 1384.
Pence BC. Role of calcium in colon cancer prevention: experimental and clinical studies. Mutat Res. 1993;290:87 - 95.
Bostick RM, Fosdick L, Wood JR, et al. Calcium and colorectal epithelial cell proliferation in sporadic adenoma patients: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995;87:1307 - 1315.
Baron JA, Tosteson TD, Wargovich MJ, et al. Calcium supplementation and rectal mucosal proliferation: a randomized controlled trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995;87:1303 - 1307.
Holt PR, Atillasoy EO, Gilman J, et al. Modulation of abnormal colonic epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation by low-fat dairy foods: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1998;280:1074 - 1079.
Lapre JA, De Vries HT, Termont DS, et al. Mechanism of the protective effect of supplemental dietary calcium on cytolytic activity of fecal water. Cancer Res. 1993;53:248 - 253.
Martinez ME, Willett WC. Calcium, vitamin D, and colorectal cancer: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1998;7:163 - 168.
Garland FC, Garland CF, Gorham ED, et al. Geographic variation in breast cancer mortality in the United States: a hypothesis involving exposure to solar radiation. Prev Med . 1990; 19:614 - 622.
Key SW, Marble M. Studies link sun exposure to protection against cancer. Cancer Weekly Plus. November 17, 1997:5 - 6.
Martinez ME, Giovannucci EL, Colditz GA, et al. Calcium, vitamin D, and the occurrence of colorectal cancer among women. J Natl Cancer Inst . 1996;88:1375 - 1382.
Norat T, Van Bakel M, Riboli E. Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of cancer of the digestive tract: meta-analysis of published case-control and cohort studies. Presented at: European Conference on Nutrition & Cancer; June 21-24, 2001; Lyon, France.
James SY, Mackay AG, Colston KW. Effects of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D 3 and its analogues on induction of apoptosis in breast cancer cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol . 1996;58:395 - 401.
Taylor JA, Hirvonen A, Watson M, et al. Association of prostate cancer with vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism. Cancer Res . 1996;56:4108 - 4110.
Douglas WC. Vitamin D scores again. Second Opin . 1997;7:4 - 5.
Fuller KE, Casparian JM. Vitamin D: balancing cutaneous and systematic considerations. South Med J . 2001;94:58 - 64.
Gilchrest BA, Eller MS, Geller AC, et al. The pathogenesis of melanoma induced by ultraviolet radiation. N Engl J Med . 1999;340:1341 - 1348.
Studzinski GP, Moore DC. Sunlight--can it prevent as well as cause cancer? Cancer Res . 1995;55:4014 - 4022.
Blutt SE, Weigel NL. Vitamin D and prostate cancer. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med . 1999;221:89 - 98.
Vandewalle B, Hornez L, Wattez N, et al. Vitamin-D3 derivatives and breast-tumor cell growth: effect on intracellular calcium and apoptosis. Int J Cancer . 1995;61:806 - 811.
Hofer H, Ho GM, Peterlik M, et al. Biological effects of 1alpha-hydroxy- and 1beta-(hydroxymethyl)-vitamin D compounds relevant for potential colorectal cancer therapy. J Pharmacol Exp Ther . 1999;291:450 - 455.
Tong WM, Kallay E, Hofer H, et al. Growth regulation of human colon cancer cells by epidermal growth factor and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is mediated by mutual modulation of receptor expression. Eur J Cancer . 1998;34:2119 - 2125.
Ekman P. Genetic and environmental factors in prostate cancer genesis: identifying high-risk cohorts. Eur Urol . 1999;35:362 - 369.
Peehl DM. Vitamin D and prostate cancer risk. Eur Urol . 1999;35:392 - 394.
Hanchette CL, Schwartz GG. Geographic patterns of prostate cancer mortality. Evidence for a protective effect of ultraviolet radiation. Cancer . 1992;70:2861 - 2869.
Moffatt KA, Johannes WU, Miller GJ. 1Alpha,25dihydroxyvitamin D3 and platinum drugs act synergistically to inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cell lines. Clin Cancer Res . 1999;5:695 - 703.
Danielsson C, Torma H, Vahlquist A, et al. Positive and negative interaction of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and the retinoid CD437 in the induction of human melanoma cell apoptosis. Int J Cancer . 1999;81:467 - 470.
Evans SR, Houghton AM, Schumaker L, et al. Vitamin D receptor and growth inhibition by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in human malignant melanoma cell lines. J Surg Res . 1996;61:127 - 133.
Trock B, Lanza E, and Greenwald P. Dietary fiber, vegetables, and colon cancer: critical review and meta-analyses of the epidemiologic evidence. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1990;82:650 - 661.
Howe GR, Benito E, Castelleto R, et al. Dietary intake of fiber and decreased risk of cancers of the colon and rectum: evidence from the combined analysis of 13 case-control studies. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1992;84:1887 - 1896.
Platz EA, Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, et al. Dietary fiber and distal colorectal adenoma in men. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev . 1997;6:661 - 670.
Bingham S, Day NE, Luben R, et al. Plant polysaccharides, meat and colorectal cancer. Presented at: European Conference on Nutrition & Cancer; June 21-24, 2001; Lyon, France.
Miller AB, for the EPIC group. Vegetables and fruits and lung cancer. Presented at: European Conference on Nutrition & Cancer; June 21-24, 2001; Lyon, France.
Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, et al. Intake of fat, meat, and fiber in relation to risk of colon cancer in men. Cancer Res. 1994;54:2390 - 2397.
Fuchs CS, Giovannucci EL, Colditz GA, et al. Dietary fiber and the risk of colorectal cancer and adenoma in women. N Engl J Med. 1999;340:169 - 176.
MacLennan R, Macrae F, Bain C, et al. Randomized trial of intake of fat, fiber, and beta carotene to prevent colorectal adenomas. The Australian Polyp Prevention Project. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995;87:1760 - 1766.
McKeown-Eyssen GE, Bright-See E, Bruce WR, et al. A randomized trial of low fat high fibre diet in the recurrence of colorectal polyps. Toronto Polyp Prevention Group. J Clin Epidemiol. 1994;47:525 - 536.
Schatzkin A, Lanza E, Corle D, et al. Lack of effect of a low-fat, high-fiber diet on the recurrence of colorectal adenomas. Polyp Prevention Trial Study Group. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:1149 - 1155.
Alberts DS, Martinez ME, Roe DJ, et al. Lack of effect of a high-fiber cereal supplement on the recurrence of colorectal adenomas. Phoenix Colon Cancer Prevention Physicians' Network. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:1156 - 1162.
Gonzales CA, for the EPIC group. Vegetables, fruit and cereals consumption and the gastric cancer risk. Presented at: European Conference on Nutrition & Cancer; June 21-24, 2001; Lyon, France.
Adlercreutz H, Fotsis T, Heikkinen R, et al. Excretion of the lignans enterolactone and enterodiol and of equol in omnivorous and vegetarian postmenopausal women and in women with breast cancer. Lancet . 1982;2:1295 - 1299.
Thompson LU. Experimental studies on lignans and cancer. Baillieres Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998;12:691 - 705.
Thompson LU, Rickard SE, Orcheson LJ, et al. Flaxseed and its lignan and oil components reduce mammary tumor growth at a late stage of carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis. 1996;17:1373 - 1376.
Bougnoux P, Koscielny S, Chajes V, et al. Alpha-linolenic acid content of adipose breast tissue: a host determinant of the risk of early metastasis in breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 1994;70:330 - 334.
Rose DP. Dietary fatty acids and cancer. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66(suppl):998S - 1003S.
Bueno de Mesquita HB, for the EPIC group. Plantfoods and colorectal cancer in the EPIC cohort. Presented at: European Conference on Nutrition & Cancer; June 21-24, 2001; Lyon, France.
Serraino M, Thompson LU. The effect of flaxseed supplementation on the initiation and promotional stages of mammary tumorigenesis. Nutr Cancer . 1992;17:153 - 159.
Yan L, Yee JA, Li D, et al. Dietary flaxseed supplementation and experimental metastasis of melanoma cells in mice. Cancer Lett . 1998;124:181 - 186.
Sung MK, Lautens M, Thompson LU. Mammalian lignans inhibit the growth of estrogen-independent human colon tumor cells. Anticancer Res . 1998;18:1405 - 1408.
Yuan YV, et al. Short-term feeding of flaxseed or its lignan has minor influence on in vivo hepatic antioxidant status in young rats. Nutr Res . 1999;19:1233 - 1243.
Bidoli E, La Vecchia C, Talamini R, et al. Micronutrients and ovarian cancer: a case-controlled study in Italy. Presented at: European Conference on Nutrition & Cancer; June 21-24, 2001; Lyon, France.
Appleby P, Key T, Burr M, et al. Mortality and fresh fruit consumption. Presented at: European Conference on Nutrition & Cancer; June 21-24, 2001; Lyon, France.
Shamsuddin AM, Vucenik I, Cole KE. IP6: a novel anti-cancer agent. Life Sci . 1997;61:343-354.
Jang M, Cai L, Udeani GO, et al. Cancer chemopreventive activity of resveratrol, a natural product derived from grapes. Science . 1997;275:218 - 220.
ElAttar TM, Virji AS. Modulating effect of resveratrol and quercetin on oral cancer cell growth and proliferation. Anticancer Drugs. 1999;10:187 - 193.
Wojtowicz-Praga S. Clinical potential of matrix metalloprotease inhibitors. Drugs R D (New Zealand) . 1999;1:117 - 129.
Dupont E, Savard PE, Jourdain C, et al. Antiangiogenic properties of a novel shark cartilage extract: Potential role in the treatment of psoriasis. J Cutan Med Surg . 1998;2:146 - 152.
Sheu JR, Fu CC, Tsai ML, et al. Effect of U-995, a potent shark cartilage-derived angiogenesis inhibitor, on anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor activities. Anticancer Res . 1998;18:4435 - 4441.
Davis PF, He Y, Furneaux RH, et al. Inhibition of angiogenesis by oral ingestion of powdered shark cartilage in a rat model. Microvasc Res . 1997;54:178 - 182.
Oikawa T, Ashino-Fuse H, Shimamura M, et al. A novel angiogenic inhibitor derived from Japanese shark cartilage (I). Extraction and estimation of inhibitory activities toward tumor and embryonic angiogenesis. Cancer Lett. 1990;51:181 - 186.
McGuire TR, Kazakoff PW, Hoie EB, et al. Antiproliferative activity of shark cartilage with and without tumor necrosis factor-alpha in human umbilical vein endothelium. Pharmacotherapy. 1996;16:237 - 244.
Lee A, Langer R. Shark cartilage contains inhibitors of tumor angiogenesis. Science. 1983;221:1185 - 1187.
Riviere M, Latreille J, Falardeau P, et al. AE-941 (Neovastat), an inhibitor of angiogenesis: phase I/II cancer clinical trial results. Cancer Invest . 1999;17(suppl 1):16 - 17.
Jamali M-A, Riviere M, Falardeau P, et al. Effect of AE-941 (neovastat), an angiogenesis inhibitor, in the Lewis lung carcinoma metastatic model, efficacy, toxicity prevention and survival. Clin Invest Med . 1998;(suppl):S16.
Riviere M, Falardeau P, Latreille J, et al. Phase I/II lung cancer clinical trial results with AE-941 (neovastat), an inhibitor of angiogenesis. Clin Invest Med . 1998;(suppl):S14.
Riviere M, Alaoui-Jamali M, Falardeau P, et al. Neovastat: an inhibitor of angiogenesis with anti-cancer activity. Presented at: Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 39; March 28 - April 1, 1998; New Orleans, La.
Blasecki J, Alaoui-Jamali M, Wang T, et al. Oral administration of Neovastat inhibits tumor progression in animal models of progressive tumor growth and metastasis. Int J Oncol . 1997;11(suppl):934.
Dupont E, Alaoui-Jamali M, Wang T, et al. Angiostatic and antitumoral activity of AE-941 (Neovastat), a molecular fraction derived from shark cartilage. Presented at: Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 38; April 12 - 16, 1997; San Diego, Calif.
Horsman MR, Alsner J, Overgaard J. The effect of shark cartilage extracts on the growth and metastatic spread of the SCCVII carcinoma. Acta Oncol. 1998;37:441 - 445.
Miller DR, Anderson GT, Stark JJ, et al. Phase I/II trial of the safety and efficacy of shark cartilage in the treatment of advanced cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1998;16:3649 - 3655.
Zhang ZF, Winton MI, Rainey C, et al. Boron is associated with decreased risk of human prostate cancer. Presented at: Experimental Biology 2001; March 31-April 4, 2001; Orlando, Fla.
Kelloff GJ, Crowell JA, Steele VE, et al. Progress in cancer chemoprevention: development of diet-derived chemopreventive agents. J Nutr. 2000;130 (2S Suppl):467S - 471S.
Fahey JW, Zhang Y, Talalay P. Broccoli sprouts: an exceptionally rich source of inducers of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:10367 - 10372.
Fahey JW, Talalay P. Antioxidant functions of sulforaphane: a potent inducer of Phase II detoxication enzymes. Food Chem Toxicol. 1999;37:973 - 979.
Shertzer HG, Berger ML, Tabor MW. Intervention in free radical mediated hepatotoxicity and lipid peroxidation by indole-3-carbinol. Biochem Pharmacol. 1988;37:333 - 338.
Michnovicz JJ. Increased estrogen 2-hydroxylation in obese women using oral indole-3-carbinol. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1998;22:227 - 229.
Chen I, Safe S, Bjeldanes L. Indole-3-carbinol and diindolylmethane as aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor agonists and antagonists in T47D human breast cancer cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 1996;51:1069 - 1076.
Bradlow HL, Sepkovic DW, Telang NT, et al. Multifunctional aspects of the action of indole-3-carbinol as an antitumor agent. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999;889:204 - 213.
Background information. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C). 700-06-1, June 28, 2000. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences web site. Available at: http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/htdocs/Chem%5FBackground/ExecSumm/Indolecarbinoll . Accessed September 19, 2000.
Bailey GS, Hendricks JD, Shelton DW, et al. Enhancement of carcinogenesis by the natural anticarcinogen indole-3-carbinol. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1987;78:931 - 934.
Dashwood RH. Indole-3-carbinol: anticarcinogen or tumor promoter in brassica vegetables? Chem Biol Interact. 1998;110:1 - 5.
Arts IC, Jacobs DR Jr, Folsom AR. Dietary catechins and cancer incidence: the Iowa Women's Health Study. Presented at: European Conference on Nutrition and Cancer; June 21-24, 2001; Lyon, France.
Balasubramanian S, Govindasamy S. Inhibitory effect of dietary flavonol quercetin on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis. 1996;17:877 - 879.
Cross HJ, Tilby M, Chipman JK, et al. Effect of quercetin on the genotoxic potential of cisplatin. Int J Cancer. 1996;66:404 - 408.
Hoffman R, Graham L, Newlands ES. Enhanced anti-proliferative action of busulphan by quercetin on the human leukaemia cell line K562. Br J Cancer. 1989;59:347 - 348.
Vucenik I, Kalebic T, Tantivejkul K, et al. Novel anticancer function of inositol hexaphosphate: inhibition of human rhabdomyosarcoma in vitro and in vivo.Anticancer Res. 1998;18:1377-1384.
Yoshida M, Yamamoto M, Nikaido T. Quercetin arrests human leukemic T-cells in late G 1 phase of the cell cycle. Cancer Res. 1992;52:6676 - 6681.
Ip C, Banni S, Angioni E, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid - enriched butter fat alters mammary gland morphogenesis and reduces cancer risk in rats. J Nutr. 1999;129:2135 - 2142.
Norrish AE, Skeaff CM, Arribas GLB, et al. Prostate cancer risk and consumption of fish oils: a dietary biomarker-based case-control study. Br J Cancer. 1999;81:1238 - 1242.
Estensen RD, Levy M, Kloop SJ, et al. N-acetylcysteine suppression of the proliferative index in the colon of patients with previous adenomatous colonic polyps. Cancer Lett. 1999;147:109 - 114.
Shamsuddin AM, Vucenik I. Mammary tumor inhibition by IP6: a review. Anticancer Res. . 1999;19:3671-3674.
Wei H, Bowen R, Cai Q, et al. Antioxidant and antipromotional effects of the soybean isoflavone genistein. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med . 1995;208:124 - 130.
Tham DT, Gardner CD, Haskell WL. Clinical review 97: Potential health benefits of dietary phytoestrogens: a review of the clinical, epidemiological, and mechanistic evidence. J Clin Endocrinol Metab . 1998;83:2223 - 2235.
Konrad L, Muller HH, Lenz C, et al. Antiproliferative effect on human prostate cancer cells by a stinging nettle root ( Urtica dioica ) extract. Planta Med. 2000;66:44 - 47.
Schwartz J, Shklar G, Reid S, et al. Prevention of experimental oral cancer by extracts of Spirulina-Dunaliell a algae. Nutr Cancer . 1988;11:127 - 134.
Mathew B, Sankaranarayanan R, Nair PP, et al. Evaluation of chemoprevention of oral cancer with Spirulina fusiformis. Nutr Cancer . 1995;24:197 - 202.
Mishima T, Murata J, Toyoshima M, et al . Inhibition of tumor invasion and metastasis by calcium spirulan (Ca-SP), a novel sulfated polysaccharide derived from a blue-green alga, Spirulina platensis.Clin Exp Metastasis . 1998;16:541 - 550.
Habib FK, Ross M, Buck AC, et al. In vitro evaluation of the pollen extract, cernitin T-60, in the regulation of prostate cell growth. Br J Urol. 1990;66:393 - 397.
Roberts KP, Iyer RA, Prasad G, et al. Cyclic hydroxamic acid inhibitors of prostate cancer cell growth: selectivity and structure activity relationships. Prostate . 1998;34:92 - 99.
Zhang X, Habib FK, Ross M, et al. Isolation and characterization of a cyclic hydroxamic acid from a pollen extract, which inhibits cancerous cell growth in vitro. J Med Chem . 1995;38:735 - 738.
Chida K, Yamamoto I. Antitumor activity of a crude fucoidan fraction prepared from the roots of kelp ( Laminaria species). Kitasato Arch Exp Med . 1987;60:33 - 39.
Maruyama H, Watanabe K, Yamamoto I. Effect of dietary kelp on lipid peroxidation and glutathione peroxidase activity in livers of rats given breast carcinogen DMBA. Nutr Cancer . 1991;15:221 - 228.
Teas J. The dietary intake of Laminaria , a brown seaweed, and breast cancer prevention. Nutr Cancer . 1983;4:217 - 222.
Funahashi H, Imai T, Tanaka Y, et al. Wakame seaweed suppresses the proliferation of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)-anthracene-induced mammary tumors in rats. Jpn J Cancer Res . 1999;90:922 - 927.
Shan BE, Yoshida Y, Kuroda E, et al. Immunomodulating activity of seaweed extract on human lymphocytes in vitro . Int J Immunopharmacol . 1999;21:59 - 70.
Ohno Y, Yoshida O, Oishi K, et al. Dietary beta-carotene and cancer of the prostate: a case-control study in Kyoto, Japan. Cancer Res . 1988;48:1331 - 1336.
Rose ML, Cattley RC, Dunn C, et al. Dietary glycine prevents the development of liver tumors caused by the peroxisome proliferator WY-14,643. Carcinogenesis . 1999;20:2075 - 2081.
Rose ML, Madren J, Bunzendahl H, et al. Dietary glycine inhibits the growth of B16 melanoma tumors in mice. Carcinogenesis . 1999;20:793 - 798.
Hancke JL, Burgos RA, Ahumada F. Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. Fitoterapia. 1999;70:451 - 471.
Liu J, Xiao P-G. Recent advances in the study of antioxidative effects of Chinese medicinal plants. Phytother Res . 1994;8:445 - 451.
Liu G-T. Pharmacological actions and clinical use of Fructus schizandrae . Chin Med J. 1989;102:740 - 749.
Wattenberg LW. Chemoprevention of pulmonary carcinogenesis by myo-inositol. Anticancer Res. 1999;19:3659 - 3661.
Dong Z, Huang C, Ma WY. PI-3 kinase in signal transduction, cell transformation, and as a target for chemoprevention of cancer. Anticancer Res. 1999;19:3743 - 3747.
Yang GY, Shamsuddin AM. IP6-induced growth inhibition and differentiation of HT-29 human colon cancer cells: involvement of intracellular inositol phosphates. Anticancer Res. 1995;15:2479 - 2487.
Ishikawa T, Nakatsuru Y, Zarkovic M, et al. Inhibition of skin cancer by IP6 in vivo: initiation-promotion model. Anticancer Res. 1999;19(5A):3749 - 3752.
Shamsuddin AM. Metabolism and cellular functions of IP6: a review. Anticancer Res. 1999;19(5A):3733 - 3736.
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Update Date: 09/18/2014