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Diagnosis and Prognosis of Kidney Cancer
Suspicion of Kidney Cancer
- Urine tests—To check for the presence of blood, infection, or other abnormal cells in the urine. Urine tests are also useful to evaluate how well the kidneys are working.
- Blood tests—May identify markers in the blood. For example, tumor markers or specific blood proteins may be elevated in the presence of cancer. Blood tests can also show how well the kidneys and liver are working.
Diagnosis of Kidney Cancer
Staging of Kidney Cancer
- Stage I—Tumor is 7 centimeters (cm) OR LESS in size. The tumor is contained WITHIN the kidney.
- Stage II—Tumor is OVER 7 cm in size. The tumor is contained WITHIN the kidney.
- Tumor is any size AND cancer is in 1 or more lymph nodes near the kidney OR
- Cancer is in the primary artery or vein of the kidney, or the layer of fat around the kidney AND MAY BE in 1 or more lymph nodes near the kidney
- Cancer has spread beyond the layer of fat around the kidney AND MAY BE in the adrenal gland (which sits nearly on top of the kidney) OR in lymph nodes near the kidney OR
- Cancer has spread to other parts of the body through the lymph and blood streams. The most common sites for metastatic kidney cancer are lymph nodes in other parts of the body, the bones, lungs, liver, and brain.
- Reviewer: Mohei Abouzied, MD
- Review Date: 05/2016
- Update Date: 12/29/2015