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Principal Proposed Natural Treatments
Other Proposed Natural Treatments
Homocysteine Studies Collaboration. Homocysteine and risk of ischemic heart disease and stroke: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2002;288:2015-2022.
Folsom AR, Nieto FJ, McGovern PG, et al. Prospective study of coronary heart disease incidence in relation to fasting total homocysteine, related genetic polymorphisms, and B vitamins: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Circulation. 1998;98:204-210.
Aubard Y, Darodes N, Cantaloube M. Hyperhomocysteinemia and pregnancy—review of our present understanding and therapeutic implications. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2000;93:157-165.
Cattaneo M, Vecchi M, Zighetti ML, et al. High prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a pathogenic link with thromboembolic complications? Thromb Haemost. 1998;80:542-545.
Clarke R, Smith D, Jobst KA, et al. Folate, vitamin B12, and serum total homocysteine levels in confirmed Alzheimer disease. Arch Neruol. 1998;55:1449-1455.
Eskes TK. Clotting disorders and placental abruption: homocysteine—a new risk factor. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2001;95:206-212.
Franco RF, Reitsma PH. Genetic risk factors of venous thrombosis. Hum Genet. 2001;109:369-384.
Miller JW. Homocysteine, folate deficiency, and Parkinson's disease. Nutr Rev. 2002;60:410-413.
Mizrahi EH, Jacobsen DW, Friedland RP. Plasma homocysteine: a new risk factor for Alzheimer's disease? Isr Med Assoc J. 2002;4:187-190.
Moghadasian MH, McManus BM, Frohlich JJ. Homocyst(e)ine and coronary artery disease. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157:2299-2308.
Ubbink JB, van der Merwe A, Vermaak WJH, et al. Hyperhomocysteinemia and the response to vitamin supplementation. Clin Investig. 1993;71:993-998.
den Heijer M, Brouwer IA, Bos GMJ, et al. Vitamin supplementation reduces blood homocysteine levels: a controlled trial in patients with venous thrombosis and healthy volunteers. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1998;18:356-361.
Ward M, McNulty H, McPartlin J, et al. Plasma homocysteine, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is lowered by physiological doses of folic acid. QJM. 1997;90:519-524.
Wald NJ, Watt HC, Law MR, et al. Homocysteine and ischemic heart disease: results of a prospective study with implications regarding prevention. Arch Intern Med. 1998;158:862-867.
Wald DS, Bishop L, Wald NJ, et al. Randomized trial of folic acid supplementation and serum homocysteine levels. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161:695-700.
Kant AK, Block G. Dietary vitamin B-6 intake and food sources in the US population: NHANES II, 1976-1980. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990;52:707-716.
National Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin and Choline. Washington DC: National Academy Press; 1998.
Cembrowski GS, Zhang MM, Prosser CI, Higgins T. Folate is not what it is cracked up to be. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159:2747-2748.
Venn BJ, Mann JI, Williams SM, et al. Assessment of three levels of folic acid on serum folate and plasma homocysteine: a randomised placebo-controlled double-blind dietary intervention trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002;56:748-754.
Schwammenthal Y, Tanne D. Homocysteine, B-vitamin supplementation, and stroke prevention: from observational to interventional trials. Lancet Neurol. 2004;3:493-495.
Sato Y, Honda Y, Iwamoto J, et al. Effect of folate and mecobalamin on hip fractures in patients with stroke. JAMA. 2005;293:1082-1088.
Olthof MR, Van Vliet T, Boelsma E, et al. Low dose betaine supplementation leads to immediate and long term lowering of plasma homocysteine in healthy men and women. J Nutr. 2003;133:4135-4138.
Toole JF, Malinow MR, Chambless LE, et al. Lowering homocysteine in patients with ischemic stroke to prevent recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, and death: the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004;291:565-575.
The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) 2 Investigators. Homocysteine lowering with folic acid and B vitamins in vascular disease. New England Journal of Medicine website. Available at: http://www.nejm.org . Accessed March 12, 2006.
Bønaa K, Njølstad I, Ueland M, et al. Homocysteine lowering and cardiovascular events after acute myocardial infarction. New England Journal of Medicine website. Available at: http://www.nejm.org . Accessed March 12, 2006.
Stott DJ, Macintosh G, Lowe GD, et al. Randomized controlled trial of homocysteine-lowering vitamin treatment in elderly patients with vascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82:1320-1326.
Schnyder G, Roffi M, Flammer Y, et al. Effect of homocysteine-lowering therapy with folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 on clinical outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention: the Swiss Heart study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002;288:973-979.
Sato Y, Honda Y, Iwamoto J, et al. Homocysteine as a predictive factor for hip fracture in stroke patients. Bone. 2005;36:721-726.
Sato Y, Iwamoto J, Kanoko T, et al. Homocysteine as a predictive factor for hip fracture in elderly women with Parkinson's disease. Am J Med. 2005;118:1250-1255.
McLean RR, Jacques PF, Selhub J, et al. Homocysteine as a predictive factor for hip fracture in older persons. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:2042-9.
[no authors listed] Dose-dependent effects of folic acid on blood concentrations of homocysteine: a meta-analysis of the randomized trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82:806-812.
Schwab U, Torronen A, Meririnne E, et al. Orally administered betaine has an acute and dose-dependent effect on serum betaine and plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy humans. J Nutr. 2005;136:34-38.
Olthof MR, Vliet TV, Verhoef P, et al. Effect of homocysteine-lowering nutrients on blood lipids: results from four randomised, placebo-controlled studies in healthy humans. PLoS Med. 2005;2:135.
Olthof MR, Brink EJ, Katan MB, et al. Choline supplemented as phosphatidylcholine decreases fasting and postmethionine-loading plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82:111-117.
Reimann M, Dierkes J, Carlsohn A, et al. Consumption of soy isoflavones does not affect plasma total homocysteine or asymmetric dimethylarginine concentrations in healthy postmenopausal women. J Nutr. 2005;136:100-105.
McMahon JA, Green TJ, Skeaff CM, et al. A controlled trial of homocysteine lowering and cognitive performance. N Engl J Med. 2006;354: 2764-2772.
den Heijer M, Willems HP, Blom HJ, et al. Homocysteine lowering by B vitamins and the secondary prevention of deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind trial. Blood. 2006 Sep 7. [Epub ahead of print]
Lin PT, Lee BJ, Chang HH, et al. Low-dose folic acid supplementation reduces homocysteine concentration in hyperhomocysteinemic coronary artery disease patients. Nutr Res. 2006;26:460-466.
Durga J, Verhoef P, Anteunis LJ, et al. Effects of folic acid supplementation on hearing in older adults: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 2007;146:1-9.
Durga J, van Boxtel MP, Schouten EG, et al. Effect of 3-year folic acid supplementation on cognitive function in older adults in the FACIT trial: a randomised, double blind, controlled trial. Lancet. 2007;369:208-216.
Green TJ, McMahon JA, Skeaff CM, et al. Lowering homocysteine with B vitamins has no effect on biomarkers of bone turnover in older persons: a 2-y randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85:460-464.
Ray JG, Kearon C, Yi Q, et al. Homocysteine-lowering therapy and risk for venous thromboembolism. A randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2007 Apr 30. [Epub ahead of print]
McMahon JA, Skeaff CM, Williams SM, et al. Lowering homocysteine with B vitamins has no effect on blood pressure in older adults. J Nutr. 2007;137:1183-1187.
Herrmann M, Umanskaya N, Traber L, et al. The effect of B-vitamins on biochemical bone turnover markers and bone mineral density in osteoporotic patients: a 1-year double blind placebo controlled trial. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2007 Nov 18. [Epub ahead of print]
Green TJ, McMahon JA, Skeaff CM, et al. Lowering homocysteine with B vitamins has no effect on biomarkers of bone turnover in older persons: a 2-year randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85:460-464.
Sato Y, Honda Y, Iwamoto J, et al. Effect of folate and mecobalamin on hip fractures in patients with stroke: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2005;293:1082-1088.
Sun Y, Lu CJ, Chien KL, et al. Efficacy of multivitamin supplementation containing vitamins b(6) and b(12) and folic Acid as adjunctive treatment with a cholinesterase inhibitor in Alzheimer's disease: a 26-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in taiwanese patients. Clin Ther. 2007;29:2204-2214
van Uffelen JG, Chin A Paw MJ, Hopman-Rock M, et al. The effect of walking and vitamin B supplementation on quality of life in community-dwelling adults with mild cognitive impairment: a randomized, controlled trial. Qual Life Res. 2007 Jul 7. [Epub ahead of print]
Albert CM, Cook NR, Gaziano JM, et al. Effect of folic acid and B vitamins on risk of cardiovascular events and total mortality among women at high risk for cardiovascular disease: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2008;299:2027-2036.
Ebbing M, Bleie O, Ueland PM, et al. Mortality and cardiovascular events in patients treated with homocysteine-lowering B vitamins after coronary angiography: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2008;300:795-804.
Aisen PS, Schneider LS, Sano M, et al. High-dose B vitamin supplementation and cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2008;300:1774-1783.
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 12/2015
- Update Date: 12/15/2015