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(Renal Colic—Child; Renal Lithiasis—Child; Nephrolithiasis—Child; Renal Calculi—Child)
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- Too much oxalate in the urine
- Too much calcium in the urine or blood
- Too much uric acid in the urine
- Tiny bacteria a stone can form around
- Inherited abnormality in the way the body handles cystine
- Foreign bodies in the urinary tract, like stents or catheters
- Abnormal function of the urinary tract, such as neurogenic bladder
- Dehydration —not drinking enough fluids
- Eating foods high in salt
- Eating a ketogenic diet to help control epilepsy
- Mineral content of water your child drinks (hardness or softness of the water)
- Having family members who have had kidney stones or gout
- Having kidney stones in the past
- Being overweight
- Medical conditions, such as urinary tract infections or metabolic conditions
- Geographic location—residents of the Southeast United States have an increased risk
- Limited physical activity
- Foreign material in the urinary tract, such as a catheter
- Sudden, severe pain in the side of the body or mid- or lower back when it moves
- Pain in the belly or groin area
- Nausea or vomiting
- Blood in the urine
- Burning pain when urinating
- Recurring urinary tract infections
- Over-the-counter pain relivers
- Prescription pain relievers
- Medication to dissolve the kidney stone
- Very large or growing larger
- Causing bleeding or damage to the kidney
- Causing infection
- Blocking the flow of urine
- Unable to pass on its own
- Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)—uses shock waves to break up stones that are too large to pass
Ureteroscopy and stone basketing or laser lithotripsy—camera is used to locate the stone
- Stone basketing—A tiny basket is used to remove the stone.
- Laser lithotripsy—The stone is broken into smaller pieces with a laser if it is too large to remove.
- Percutaneous nephrolithotomy—uses a scope placed through a small tube in the back to remove a large stone (rare)
- Lithotomy—open surgery to remove a stone (rare)
- Have your child drink plenty of fluids, especially water. Avoid sodas.
- Make sure your child does not eat too much food that is high in salt, such as potato chips, french fries, or processed meats.
- A calcium-rich diet can help bind oxalate before it reaches the kidney. Encourage milk and yogurt.
- If your child is overweight, work with your child’s doctor to learn the safest way for your child to lose weight.
- Encourage water during sporting activities or other active playtimes.
- Reviewer: EBSCO Medical Review Board Kari Kassir, MD
- Review Date: 03/2017
- Update Date: 06/23/2014