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(VUR—Child; Reflux Nephropathy—Child; Chronic Atrophic Pyelonephritis—Child; Vesico-Ureteric Reflux—Child; Ureteral Reflux—Child)
|The Urinary Tract|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
- A problem in the way the ureter inserts into the bladder
- A ureter that does not extend far enough into the bladder
- Neurogenic bladder—loss of normal bladder function due to damaged nerves reaching the bladder
- Family history (especially if a sibling or parent has VUR)
- Birth defects that affect the urinary tract
- Birth defects that affect the spinal cord, such as spina bifida
- Tumors in the spinal cord or pelvis
- Frequent and urgent need to urinate
- Passing small amounts of urine
- Pain in the abdomen or pelvic area
- Burning sensation during urination
- Cloudy, bad-smelling urine
- Increased need to get up at night to urinate
- Blood in the urine
- Leaking urine
- Low back pain or pain along the side of the ribs
- Fever and chills
- Blood tests—to assess how well the kidneys are functioning
- Urine tests—to look for evidence of an infection or damage to the kidneys
Voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG)—a liquid that can be seen on
is placed in the bladder through a catheter; x-rays are taken when the bladder is filled and when urinating
- Note: This test is not done routinely in children aged 2-24 months.
- Radionuclide cystogram (RNC)—a test like VCUG, but uses a different kind of liquid to obtain images
- Intravenous pyelogram—also uses a liquid that can be seen on x-rays; images are taken as the substance travels from the blood (after being injected into a vein) into the kidneys and bladder
- Nuclear scans—a variety of tests using radioactive materials injected into a vein to show how well the urinary system is working
- Preventive antibiotics may be given under certain conditions, depending on your childs age, history of urine infections, and grade of reflux.
- Antibiotics will be used if a urine infection is present.
- Tests to check how the kidneys are functioning
- Ureteral reimplantation surgery—This can be done in two ways. One requires making an incision above the pubic bone and repositioning the ureters in the bladder. It can also be done laparoscopically, with cameras being inserted through small incisions in the abdomen and/or bladder to do the surgery.
- Endoscopic injection into the ureter—This is a minimally invasive surgery that is done to correct the reflux. A gel is injected where the ureter inserts into the bladder. This can block urine from flowing back up the ureter.
- Reviewer: EBSCO Medical Review Board Michael Woods, MD, FAAP
- Review Date: 03/2017
- Update Date: 05/05/2014