The esophagus connects the mouth to the stomach. Esophageal varices are abnormally swollen veins within the lining of the esophagus. If undiagnosed or untreated, esophageal varices can rupture and lead to life-threatening bleeding.
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Increased pressure in the veins that deliver blood to the liver is known as
portal hypertension. The increased pressure causes blood to back up into other smaller vessels, including those of the esophagus. This leads to the formation of esophageal varices.
The medical conditions that lead to the development of portal hypertension and esophageal varices include:
Cirrhosis of the liver
- Blood clots of the splenic, portal, or hepatic veins
- Arterial-portal venous fistula—abnormal connections between arteries and veins in the liver or spleen
- Certain infections
- Severe heart failure
Factors that increase your chance of developing esophageal varices include:
Esophageal varices are usually only diagnosed when bleeding occurs. Though bleeding from esophageal varices may not be severe and may stop on its own, first-time bleeding events may result in death in some cases.
Signs of bleeding from esophageal varices include:
- Vomiting or coughing up blood
- Red, tarry, or very dark stools
- Low blood pressure
- Rapid heartbeat
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Tests may include the following:
Several treatments can help lower the risk of vessel rupture or stop bleeding if it starts. Treatment options include the following:
Medications may be given to lower blood pressure in the veins to decrease the risk of bleeding or help slow bleeding.
This procedure involves the passage of a balloon through the nose to help compress the bleeding varices.
Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunting (TIPS)
TIPS involves threading a catheter from a neck vein to the liver. A stent, a small tube designed to keep veins open, is bound to the catheter and inserted into the liver. It will increase blood flow through the portal vein and relieve blood pressure in the esophageal varices.
This procedure can control bleeding in most cases.
Distal Splenorenal Shunt (DSRS)
DSRS is a surgical procedure that connects the main vein in the spleen to the left kidney vein. The procedure is done to lower blood pressure in the swollen vessels and to limit bleeding.
This procedure is reserved for those who fail to respond to medications or endoscopic treatment and are not considered good candidates for a shunting procedure.
To help reduce your chance of esophageal varices:
- Get treatment for complications related to alcohol use disorder.
- Tell your doctor if you are at risk for chronic liver disease, blood clots, or are on medications that may damage the liver.
If you already have chronic liver disease, your doctor may prescribe medications to prevent swollen vessels from developing.
American College of Gastroenterology
American Gastroenterological Association
Canadian Association of Gastroenterology
Canadian Liver Foundation
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